Many Western people textbooks begin with the old Greeks. As provided in the arrival of this book, however, there space some problems with acquisition that approach, most importantly the fact that starting with the Greeks overlooks the fact that the Greeks did not design the essential facets of civilization itself.

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That being noted, the Greeks were unquestionably historically important and also influential. They can be justly credited with producing forms of political organization and approaches to finding out that were and remain hugely influential. Amongst other things, the Greeks carried out the very first experiments in democratic government, invented a kind of philosophy and also learning pertained to with empirical observation and also rationality, created forms that drama choose comedy and also tragedy, and devised the method of researching and also writing background itself. The is hence useful and also productive to think about the background of ancient Greece also if the conceit the other develops of ancient history are less necessary is abandoned.

The Greek Dark Age

During the bronze Age, as defined in the last chapter, the Minoans and also Mycenaeans were 2 of the worlds that were component of the global trade and diplomacy network of the Mediterranean and Middle East. The Minoans were a significant seafaring civilization based upon the island the Crete. Lock created vast palace complexes, magnificent artwork, and great wealth. They at some point vanished together a unique culture, most likely after they were conquered and absorbed by the Mycenaeans, their neighbors to the north.

The Mycenaeans emerged as a world after the Minoans were currently established in Crete. The Mycenaeans live on the Greek mainland and also the islands of the Aegean Sea and were well-known primarily as sea-going merchants and also raiders. Lock were incredibly warlike, attacking each other, your neighbors, and the civilization they additionally traded v whenever the possibility existed come loot and also sack. The Mycenaeans were the protagonists the the famous epic poems written by the (possibly mythical) Homer, The Iliad and also The Odyssey.

The Mycenaeans vanished together a people at the finish of the copper Age. The cause was most likely a mix of international invasions and also local rebellions and wars. One solid possibility is that there was a sustained civil war among the Mycenaean palace-settlements that brought about a deadly disruption to the economic setting that was important to their very existence. A poor enough war in greece itself could have easily undermined harvests, currently near a subsistence level, and also when they were damaged by these conflicts, towns, fortresses and palaces could not it is in rebuilt. Whatever the cause, the decline of the Mycenaeans occurred about 1100 BCE, noting the beginning of what chroniclers refer to together the Dark age in Greek history.

Of every the regions and also cultures impacted by the please of the copper Age, greece was amongst those hit hardest. An initial and foremost, foreign trade declined dramatically. Conversely, the Mycenaeans had been seafaring traders, their descendants were largely minimal to local production and also trade. Farming reverted to subsistence levels, and trade with neighboring areas all however vanished. In turn, this reversion to neighborhood subsistence economies reduced them turn off from essential sources the nutrition and also materials for everyday life, as well as foreign ideas and social influences. The Greeks walk from being a good traveling and trading culture to one mainly isolated native its neighbors. The outcomes were devastating: part scholarly estimates are that the population of Greece declined by as lot as 90% in the centuries following the Bronze age collapse.

The antiquated Age and Greek Values

The Greek Dark age started come end around 800 BCE. The subsequent duration of Greek history, from roughly 800 BCE – 490 BCE, is described as the “Archaic” (meaning “old”) Age. The archaic Age witnessed the re-emergence of sustained contact with international cultures, starting with the development of Greek nests on the Greek islands and also on the western coastline of Anatolia; this region is dubbed Ionia, with its Greek occupants speaking a dialect of Greek referred to as Ionian. These Greeks reestablished long-distance profession routes, most importantly v the Phoenicians, the good traders and merchants of the steel Age. Eventually, foreign-made items and cultural contacts began to flow ago to Greece when again.

Of the various impacts the Ionian Greeks got from the Phoenicians, nobody was much more important than their alphabet. Working from the Phoenician version, the Ionian Greeks emerged their own syllabic alphabet (the earlier Greek writing system, direct B, vanished throughout the Greek Dark Age). This device of writing confirmed flexible, nuanced, and fairly easy to learn. Soon, the Greeks started recording not just tax records and also mercantile transactions, yet their own literature, poetry, and drama. The earliest enduring Greek literature dates from about 800 – 750 BCE thanks to the usage of this new alphabet (which, in turn, served as the basis of the roman inn alphabet and from there to the alphabets supplied in every Latinate european languages, including English).

Homer’s epos poems – The Iliad and also The Odyssey – were created down in this duration after being recited in oral form by traveling singers for centuries. Castle purported to recount the deeds of an excellent heroes from the Mycenaean age, in the procedure providing a wealthy tapestry that information around ancient Greek values, beliefs, and practices to later on cultures. Both poems celebrated arete – a Greek virtue which deserve to be analyzed in English together “excellence” and also “success,” but must be construed as a ethical characteristic as lot as a physical or psychological one. Arete meant, amongst other things, fulfilling one’s potential, i m sorry was almost always the highest goal espoused in Greek philosophy. Transparent the epics, men and also women battle to conquer both one another and their own limitations, when grappling with the limitations applied by nature, chance, and the will certainly of the gods.

The worths on display screen in the Homeric poems spoke to the Greeks the the antiquated Age in exactly how they figured out what was an excellent and desirable in human actions in general. The focus of the Greeks was on the two ways that a man (and that was constantly a male in Greek ideology – a template that will certainly be discover in information in a subsequent chapter) could conquer other men: through strength of arms and through ability at words. The two significant areas a man had actually to master were for this reason war and also rhetoric: the ability to defeat enemies in battle and also the capacity to persuade potential allies in the political arena.

What was necessary to the Greeks was the public performance the excellence, not private virtue or good intentions. What mattered was exactly how a man performed publicly, in battle, in strong competitions, or in the public forums of controversy that arised in the growing city-states of antiquated Greece. The fear of shame was a built-in component of the pursuit of excellence; Greek competitions (in everything from athletics come poetry) had actually no second-place winners, and also the losers to be openly mocked in the consequences of the contests. This idea of public debate and also competition was to have actually an substantial influence on the breakthrough of Greek culture, one the would subsequently spread roughly the whole Mediterranean region.

Greek values translated straight into Greece’s unique political order. The antiquated Age was the era when major Greek political technologies took place. Of these, the most crucial was the production of the polis (plural: poleis): a politics unit focused on a city and also including the neighboring lands. The English indigenous “political” derives native “polis” – the polis was the center of Greek national politics in every city-state, and also Greek advancements in the realm of political concept would have an huge historical legacy. From the Greek poleis of the Archaic and also subsequent classic Age, the concept of legitimate citizenship and equality, the exercise of vote on laws, and a details concept of political pride now referred to together patriotism all an initial took shape.

In the antiquated Age, Greek city-states shared comparable institutions. Greek citizens could only it is in members that a solitary polis, and citizens had actually some type of duty in political decision-making. Citizens would gather in the agora, an open up area that was used as a market and also a windy square, and discuss problem of prestige to the polis together a whole. The richest and most an effective citizens became known as “aristocrats” – the “best people.” Eventually, aristocracy came to be hereditary. Other free citizens could vote in many instances on one of two people electing officials or granting laws, the last of which were usually developed by a council of elders (all that whom were aristocrats) – the elders were dubbed archons. In ~ this beforehand stage, commoners had small real political power; the prominence was the criterion of conference to comment on politics.

Even in poleis in which citizens walk not straight vote ~ above laws, however, there was a solid sense the community, out of which arisen the ide of civic virtue: the idea that the greatest moral calling to be to place the great of the community over one’s very own selfish desires. This ide was nearly unparalleled in other places in the ancient world. When other old peoples certainly identified v their areas of origin, they connected themselves come lineages of kings rather 보다 the abstract idea the a community in many cases. Also, every Greek citizens were equal before the law, which was a radical break because most other civilizations had various sets that laws based on class identification (there were considerable ironies in Greek notions the “equality” but – view the later chapter on classic Greece). Public virtue, really closely related to the modern concept that patriotism, to be power and influential idea due to the fact that it would proceed through the Greek classical Age, be transmitted by Alexander the Great’s conquests, and also eventually become one of, if no the solitary most essential ethical criter of the roman inn Republic and also Empire. That would ultimately go ~ above to influence thinkers and politicians as much as the present.

One area of antiquated Greek culture bears additional focus: gender. Greek culture was explicitly patriarcal, with guys holding all official positions of political power. Likewise, both the Greek myths and epic tales room both rife with hostility and also suspicion the assertive, clever women, celebrating rather women who dutifully offered their husbands or fathers (Penelope, wife of the Greek hero Odysseus, is explained as waiting faithfully for 20 years for Odysseus to return indigenous the intrusion of Troy regardless of a legion that suitors make the efforts to success her and Odysseus’s lands). Females were intended to it is in sexually monogamous v their husbands if men’s sex-related liaisons with female slaves as well as other guys of their own social rank to be perfectly acceptable behaviors.

That gift noted, that is clean that women in the antiquated Age did enjoy both society influence and also some accessibility to financial power, gift able to inherit property and receiving society approval because that the skillful management of households. Likewise, ladies were not typically secluded from males in typical social discourse, with miscellaneous Greek tales consisting of moments the casual interaction between men and women. Nearly speaking, females were invaluable come the Greek economy, providing almost all of the residential labor and also contributing to farming and also commerce as well. Your status, however, would certainly grow more fraught over time: together the archaic Age developed into the classic Age (considered in a following chapter,) constraints on women’s lives and also freedoms would increase, specifically in crucial poleis like Athens, culminating in several of the most misogynistic gender standards in the old world.

Greek culture and Trade

The Greek poleis were every distinct, fiercely proud that their own identity and independence, and also they generally fought small-scale wars against one another. Even as they walk so, they known each various other as fellow Greeks and therefore as social equals. Every Greeks spoke mutually intelligible dialects of the Greek language. All Greeks worshiped the exact same pantheon of gods. Every Greeks common political traditions of citizenship. Finally, the Greeks took part in a selection of cultural practices, from listening to traveling storytellers who recited the Iliad and Odyssey from storage to hold drawn-out drink parties called symposia.


Depiction of a symposium date from c. 475 BCE.

The poleis also invented institutions that unified the urban culturally, in spite of their political independence, the most essential of which to be the Panhellenic games. “Panhellenic” literally way “all Greece,” and also the games were meant to unite all of the Greek poleis, including those started by colonists and located far from greek itself. The gamings were a mix of spiritual festival and also competition in which aristocrats from every city competed in assorted sports, including javelin, discus, footraces, and a brutal type of unarmed combat referred to as pankration.

The most far-ranging of these games was the Olympics, called after Olympia, the website in southern Greece wherein they were hosted every 4 years. They began in 776 BCE and ended in 393 CE – in various other words, they lasted for over 1,000 years. Many thanks to the Olympics, the date 776 BCE is usually provided as the critical break in between the Dark and also Archaic ages of Greek civilization. The Olympics were extraordinary not just in your longevity, but because Greeks from the entire people of Greek settlements pertained to them, travel from as far away together Sicily and the black Sea. Wars were in the interim suspended and also all Greek poleis agreed to let athletes travel through safe i to take component in the games, in component because the Olympics were committed to Zeus, the chef Greek god. As listed above, there were no 2nd prizes. Greek society was hugely competitive; the beat were humiliated and also the winners entirely triumphant. In the games, they sought, in the words of one Greek poet, “either the wreath of success or death” (granted, the poet to be indulging in part hyperbole, together there is no proof that beat athletes actually committed suicide).

With the finish of the Dark Age, population levels in greece recovered. This led to emigration together the populace outstripped the poor, rocky floor of greek itself and forced civilization to relocate elsewhere. Eventually, Greek swarms stretched throughout the Mediterranean as far as Spain in the west and the coasts of the black Sea in the north. Greeks founded swarms on the phibìc African coast and on the islands of the Mediterranean, most importantly top top Sicily. Greeks set up trading articles in the areas they settled, even in Egypt. The nests continued the mainland practice of farming olives and grapes because that oil and wine, however they also took advantage of much more fertile areas away from greece to cultivate various other crops.

Greek homesteaders sometimes intermarried with neighborhood peoples ~ above arrival, one unsurprising practice given that numerous expeditions of colonists were nearly all young men. In other cases, however, colonists found reasonably isolated areas suitable for shipping and set up shop, keeping close relationships with their home polis together an economic outpost. The one element that was usual to every Greek nests was that they were rarely far from the sea. They to be so closely tied come the idea of a common Greek civilization and the require for the sea because that trade paths was so solid that homesteaders were not typically interested in make the efforts to press inland.


Greek colonization during the Archaic duration – note just how Greek swarms were always near the sea.

As trade recovered following the end of the Dark Age, the Greeks re-established your commercial shipping network throughout the Mediterranean, v their swarms soon play a crucial role. Greek sellers eagerly traded v everyone indigenous the Celts of west Europe come the Egyptians, Lydians, and Babylonians. Once Julius Caesar was busy overcoming Gaul around 700 years later, he uncovered the Celts there composing in the Greek alphabet, long because learned from the Greek colonies along the coast. Likewise, archaeologists have discovered beautiful examples of Greek metalwork as far from greek as northern France.

Greek swarms far from Greece were as essential as the larger poleis in greece itself, because they produced a common Greek civilization across the entire Mediterranean world. Greek people was not an empire united by a single ruler or government. Instead, that was united by culture rather 보다 a typical leadership structure. That culture would go on come influence every one of the societies to monitor in a large swath of are throughout the Mediterranean an ar and the center East.

Military Organization and Politics

A crucial military advance unique come Greece to be the phalanx: a unit of spearmen was standing in a thick formation, through each utilizing his shield to safeguard the man to his left. Every soldier in a phalanx was referred to as a hoplite. Every hoplite had actually to be a cost-free Greek citizen of his polis and also had to have the ability to pay for his very own weapons and armor. He additionally had to be able to train and drill consistently with his fellow hoplites, since maneuvering in the densely-packed phalanx forced a an excellent deal of practice and coordination. The hoplites were significant politically since they were not constantly aristocrats, regardless of the truth that they had to be complimentary citizens qualified of paying because that their very own arms. Because they defended the poleis and also proved extremely effective on the battlefield, the hoplites would certainly go on to demand better political representation, something the would have actually a major impact on Greek politics as a whole.


Depiction the a battle between phalanxes of hoplites from competitor poleis, date from c. 560 BCE. The clay courage is an amphora, a container offered for wine or olive oil.

The many noteworthy military invention represented by the hoplites was that their form of organization listed one solution to the age-old difficulty of how to pay for highly-trained and motivated soldiers: quite than a state paying because that a stand army, the hoplites paid for themselves and were encouraged by civic virtue. When rival poleis fought, the phalanxes of each side would square off and also stab far at each various other until one side broke, threw under their shields, and also ran away (by much the deadliest part of the confrontation). The victors would then enable the losers time come gather their dead for a appropriate burial and peace terms would be negotiated.

By the seventh century BCE, the hoplites in numerous poleis were clamoring for far better political representation, due to the fact that they were excluded through the timeless aristocrats from meaningful political power. In many cases, the result was the climb of tyrannies: a federal government led through a man, the tyrant, who had actually no legal ideal to power, but had been appointed through the citizens of a polis in order to stave turn off civil conflict (tyrants were generally aristocrats, but they answered to the requirements of the hoplites as well). Come the Greeks, the hatchet tyrant did no originally average an unjust or cruel ruler, since many tyrants prospered in solving significant political crises on behalf of the hoplites while still regulating to placate the aristocrats.

The tyrants, doing not have official politics status, had to play to the understand of the people to stay in strength as popular dictators. They occasionally seized lands of aristocrats outright and distributed them to complimentary citizens. Countless of them constructed public works and provided jobs, while rather went out of their method to encourage trade. The period between 650 – 500 BCE is sometimes called the “Age the Tyrants” in Greek history because countless poleis instituted tyrants come stave off civil war in between aristocrats and also less rich citizens throughout this period. ~ 500 BCE, a deteriorate government dubbed oligarchy had tendency to change both aristocracies and also tyrannies. In one oligarchy, everyone with enough money might hold office, the legislations were written down and also known come all free citizens, and also even poorer citizens can vote (albeit only yes or no) ~ above the legislations passed through councils.

Sparta and Athens

Two the the many memorable poleis that the antiquated Age to be Sparta and Athens. The two poleis to be in numerous ways a study in contrasts: one obsessively militaristic and inward-looking culture of “equals” who regulated the largest slave culture in Greece, and also a cosmopolitan naval strength at the head of politics innovation.


One scholarly work-related on Greek history, open minded Frost’s Greek Society, describes the Spartans as “an experiment in elitist communism.” From approximately 600 BCE – 450 BCE, the Spartans were distinctive in the old world in placing complete emphasis ~ above a super-elite, and an extremely small, citizenship the warriors. Starting in about 700 BCE, the Spartans overcame a big swath of are in their home an ar of Greece, the southerly Greek peninsula called the Peloponnesus. Sparta at the moment was one aristocratic monarchy, v two kings ruling end councils of citizens. Under the two kings were a smaller sized council that issued laws and also a large council consisted of of all Spartan males over 30 that approved or rejected the legislations proposed by the council. Over time, citizenship was limited to men who had undergone the arduous military training for which the Spartans are finest remembered.

Spartan society was amongst the most excessive forms the militarism the civilization has ever before seen. Spartan guys were bring away from their parents once they were seven to live in barracks. They were on regular basis beaten, both together a type of discipline and to make them unafraid the pain. Youngsters with deformities of any kind of kind to be left in the facets to die, together were kids maimed by the cultivate regimen. Spartan guys were trained continuous in combat, maneuvering, and also physical endurance. Spartan girls were permitted to remain with their parents, however were trained in martial skills as kids as well, in addition to the understanding they would have to run a household. As soon as a male reached the period of twenty, suspect he was judged worthy, he would be elevated come the rank of “Equal” – a full Spartan citizens – and also receive a land grant that ensured the he could concentrate on military technique for the remainder of his life without having to worry about making a living.

Even tasks like courtship and also acquiring nourishment were designed to check Spartans. When it to be time for young Spartan come marry, the young man would brawl his method into the family members home that his bride-to-be, fighting her loved ones until he might “kidnap” her – this was together close come courtship as the Spartans got. Married couples were not enabled to live together before the period of 30; up till then, the man was intended to sneak out of his bunker to see his wife, climate sneak earlier in again before morning. In addition, Spartans in training to be often forced to stealing food (from their own slave-run farms); they to be punished if caught, however the infraction was being caught, no the theft – the idea was that the future warrior had failed to live as much as the compelled level of skill at stealth.

The reason for every one of this aggressive mania was simple: Sparta was a slave society. Approximately 90% that the population of the area under Sparta’s manage were helots, serfs descended from the populace conquered by Sparta in the eighth century. Early on Spartan conquests of their an ar of Greece had resulted in a very big area under your control, occupied by world who were no Spartan. Quite than extend any kind that political depiction to these subjects, the Spartans instead maintained absolute control over them, approximately the best of death them at will through no legit consequence.

Every year, the Spartans would “declare war” ~ above the helots, rampaging with their flow valley, and component of the cultivate of young Spartans to be serving top top the Krypteia, the Spartan secret police that infiltrated Helot villages to clock for indicators of rebellion. Adolescent Spartans in cultivate would also be dispatched to just murder any type of helots they encountered. Every one of this was to ensure that the helots would be too terrified and broken-spirited to withstand Spartan domination. There to be never much more than 8,000 Spartan soldiers, together with another 20,000 or for this reason of free noncitizens (inhabitants that towns close to Sparta who were not thought about helots, but instead totally free but subservient subjects), overseeing a lot larger population of helots. Just put, Spartan society was a military hierarchy that emerged out that the are afraid a enormous slave uprising.

Likewise, despite the famous, and accurate, accounts of vital battles in i m sorry the Spartans were victorious, or at least symbolically victorious, they to be loathe come be drawn into wars, especially ones that associated going more than a few days’ march from Sparta. They were so preoccupied with maintaining regulate over the helots that they were very hesitant to connect in military projects of any type of kind, and hence rarely involved in battles against other poleis before the outbreak of war versus Athens in the 4th century BCE.

The just area in i beg your pardon Spartan culture was actually less repressive 보다 the rest of the Greek poleis was in sex roles. Follow to Greeks from exterior of Sparta, totally free Spartan ladies were much less restricted than women in other places in Greece. They to be trained in war, they can speak publicly, and they might own land. Lock scandalized various other Greeks through participating in athletics and appear to have actually benefited native a greater degree of an individual freedom than women almost everywhere else in greece – of course, this would have actually been a social necessity because the guys of Sparta resided in barracks until they were 30, leave the ladies to run family members estates.


In plenty of ways, Athens was the the opposite of Sparta. Vice versa, the Spartans to be militaristic and also austere (the native “spartan” in English today method “severe and also unadorned”), the Athenians celebrated art, music, and drama. While it still controlled a big slave population, Athens is also remembered as the birthplace of democracy. In turn, Sparta and Athens were, particularly in the fifth and also fourth century BCE, rivals because that the place of the most an effective polis in Greece.

Athens was rich and populous – the population of Attica, the 1,000-square-mile an ar of Greece, was about 600,000 through 600 BCE, and Athens was a major force in Mediterranean trade. That wide range led to conflicts over that distribution amongst the citizens, in turn prompting some unprecedented political experiments. Beginning early in the archaic Age, Athens witnessed a series of struggles and also compromises between the aristocrats – affluent land-owning family members who managed most that the land and also most the the political strength – and also everyone else, an especially the complimentary citizens and also farmers that Athens who were no aristocrats. One vital development in Athenian politics emerged from the truth that merchants and also prosperous farmers might afford arms and armor however were shut out of political decision-making. This was a classic instance of hoplites ending up being increasingly angry v the political supremacy of the aristocracy.

The crisis of representation reached a boiling point in around 600 BCE when there was a real opportunity of polite war in between the common citizens and also the aristocrats. The major problem was the the aristocrats owned many of the floor that other farmers operated on, many of those farmers were significantly indebted come the aristocrats, and by Athenian legislation anyone who can not pay off his or her debts might be legitimate enslaved. An increasing variety of formerly-free Athenian citizens thus uncovered themselves enslaved to pay off your debts come an aristocrat.

To avoid civil war, the Athenians appointed Solon (638 – 558 BCE), one aristocratic however fair-minded politician, to offer as a tyrant and to reform institutions. His most crucial step in restoring order was to release debts and to eliminate debt-slavery itself. He supplied public money come buy Athenian servants who had actually been enslaved abroad and also bring them ago to Athens. The enacted various other legal revolutionary that decreased the all at once power the the aristocracy, and also in a savvy move, he had the regulations written under on wood panels and also posted about the city so the anyone who could read could examine castle (up to that point, the only people who actually knew the laws were the aristocratic judges, which do it every too easy for them to abuse your power).

Solon was no some kind of rabble-rouser or proto-communist, however. The mitigated the worst that the social divides in between rich and poor in Athens, but he still booked the greatest offices for members of the richest families. Top top the various other hand, the poorer cost-free citizens were totally exempt from taxes, which made it less complicated for lock to remain out of debt and also to add to Athenian society (and the military). Maybe the many innovative and also important the Solon’s technologies was the principle of an impersonal state, one in which the political leaders come and go yet which continues on as an institution obeying composed laws; this is in comparison to “the state” as just the judgment cabal of upstream men, which Athens had actually been before Solon’s intervention.

This pattern ongoing for about a century. Solon’s followers were a repertoire of brand-new tyrants, few of whom seized an ext land from aristocrats and also distributed it to farmers, many of whom sponsored new building projects, however none of whom definitively damaged the strength of the old families. Social divides and tension continued to be the important reality that Athenian society.

In 508 BCE, however, a brand-new tyrant called Cleisthenes to be appointed by the Athenian assembly who lastly took the radical action of enabling all masculine citizens to have a poll in windy matters and to it is in eligible to serve in public office. This included cost-free but bad citizens, the persons too poor to bought weapons and serve together hoplites. He had lawmakers preferred by lot of (i.e. Randomly) and created new “tribes” mixing males of various backgrounds with each other to pressure them to begin to think of themselves as other Athenians, not just jealous protectors of their own families’ interests. Thus, under Cleisthenes, Athens became the very first “real” democracy in history.

That being noted, by contemporary standards Athens to be still highly unequal and also unrepresentative. Females were totally excluded from politics life, together were totally free non-citizens (including numerous prosperous Greeks who had actually not to be born in Athens) and, that course, slaves. The voting age was set at 20. Overall, around 40% that the populace were native-born Athenians, that which half were men, and fifty percent were under 20, so only 10% the the actual populace had political rights. This is still a very large percentage through the requirements of the ancient world, but it need to be thought about as an antidote come the idea that the Greeks thought in “equality” in a contemporary sense.

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Greece managed to construct its unique political institutions and society as component of a larger Mediterranean “world,” trade with, raiding, and also settling alongside many of the other human beings of the steel Age. Because that centuries, Greece itself was too remote, geographically, and too poor, in state of organic resources, come tempt foreign invaders to shot to grab control. Starting in the sixth century BCE, however, part Greek nests fell under the persuade of the greatest empire the human being had seen to date, and a collection of events culminated in a full-scale war between the Greeks and also that empire: Persia.