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You are watching: Beethoven is considered by some to be the supreme architect in music.
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German composer and organist. Persuaded Beethoven’s father to allow him to teach the young composer. Oldest son of Johann van Beethoven and Maria Magdelena Beethoven. His mother was very kind and demure. His father was very cold and tyrannical. Father was an organist and second rate tenor in the court chapel of the highborn prince max Friedrich. Father was a bad alcoholic. He was oppressive when drunk. He was relieved of his duties with the chapel due to his drunkenness. Young Beethoven took his fathers place as the replacement keyboard player and as a replacement singer for his father when his father was too drunk to do his job. In the end he replaced his father in the position at the age of 12. Beethoven’s father insisted upon being the young composer’s only teacher. Taught him clavier: piano, and violin. His father was a harsh teacher. Harsh punishments for not performing perfectly. His teaching abilities were not as good as other teachers. He had no patience for his son’s mistakes. Would beat him for not submitting. Would lock him in a cellar for not practicing enough. His father’s harshness coupled with his alcoholism caused helped to ruin the family life. Beethoven felt that it was up to him to save the family. Beethoven and Patronage Beethoven manipulated the patronage system so that he could live more freely. Gave music lessons to wealthy families. Sold music to many publishers. Even when Napoleon was threatening the whole survival of continental Europeans, Beethoven had contacts with publishers in England who would continue to publish his music. Beethoven: Patronage Invited into the homes of the aristocracy. Treated as an equal to the aristocracy. Believed that one must be treated as an equal if music is to be produced. As deafness sets in he returns to the piano sonata and the string quartet. Two genres he is most comfortable with.
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1. Ludwig Van Beethoven 1770-1827 Born in Bonn Died in Vienna Third member of the great Vien..." target="_blank"> 2. Ludwig Van Beethoven Third member of the great Viennese masters The great transitional composer By the time he was 35 years old he was the most important composer in the people Father and Grandfather were musicians. 4. Childhood Father and Grandfather were musicians. Father was Ludwig’s first music teacher. His father was an alcoholic Supported his family as a child Showed an interest in composing very beforehand “ Louis van Beethoven… a boy of 11 years and a most..." target="_blank"> 5. “ Louis van Beethoven… a boy of 11 years and a most promising talent. He plays the clavier very skillfully and with power, reads at sight very well… This youthful genius is deserving of help to enable him to travel. He would surely become a second Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart were he to continue as he has begun.” – Christian Gottlob Neefe Beethoven went to Vienna, Austria t..." target="_blank"> 6. Young adulthood Beethoven went to Vienna, Austria to learn more about composing when he was 17. He played for Mozart He had to return home when his mother died, and help raise his brothers. When Beethoven was 22 (1792), he m..." target="_blank"> 7. Return to Vienna When Beethoven was 22 (1792), he moved to Austria and never returned to Germany. He studied with Haydn True, it’s “van,” not the aristocratic “von,” however ..." target="_blank"> 8. True, it’s “van,” not the aristocratic “von,” but if someone mistakenly thinks I’m a “von” of royal blood I certainly won’t correct him. Ludwig Van Beethrange Patronage is gone. Besides..." target="_blank"> 9. Beethoven and Patronage Patronage is gone. Besides, Beethoven considered himself equal to, not the servant of, any noble! made his living by: selling compositions to publishers concertizing as a pianist 1 st musician to make a living almost exclusively through complace Beethoven was not easy to be around..." target="_blank"> 10. His temperament Beethoven was not easy to be around. He had a temper, and he was very demanding. He would get lost in his own thoughts and would get impatient with others when they didn’t do what he thought they should do. He criticized other musicians when they didn’t perform his pieces the way he wanted them to sound. His whole life was very ‘stormy’ …there were many sad and discouraging times. “ But as it has been demonstra..." target="_blank"> 11. Beethoven’s Contract “ But as it has been demonstrated that only one when he is free from care as possible can devote himself to a single department of activity and create works of magnitude which are exalted and which ennoble art, the undersigned have decided to place Herr Ludwig van Beethoven in a position where the necessities of life shall not cause him embarrassment or clog his powerful genius.” His Imperial Highness, Archduk..." target="_blank"> 12. Beethoven’s Contract His Imperial Highness, Archduke Rudolph 1500 florins The Highborn Prince Lobkowitz 700 florins The Highborn Prince Ferdinand Kinsky 1800 Florins Total…. 4000 florins (150,000 USD) All Beethoven had to do was to..." target="_blank"> 13. Beethoven’s Contract All Beethoven had to do was to declare Vienna his home.” It is good to walk among the aristocracy, but first you must MAKE them respect you.” the most virtuosic in Europe..." target="_blank"> 14. Beethoven, the pianist the most virtuosic in Europe dazzling technique and power genius improviser a composer much music for piano piano is being developed cast iron frame (stronger, more powerful instrument) larger range (Beethoven wrote notes that were not on current pianos, then told manufacturers to build new instruments) Beethoven began hearing buzzinns ..." target="_blank"> 15. Losing his hearing Beethoven began hearing buzzing in his ears. At first he tried to hide his loss of hearing from his friends. He continued to write music when he was deaf. Beethoven tried many hearing devices, but none of them worked. He could watch people’s lips to understand what they were saying, or have them write in a notebook. Manifests itself as early as 1796 16. Manifests itself as early as 1796 By 1820 he could barely hear Heiligenstadt Testament Letter Beethoven writes in 1802 Describes his illness and his melancholy Beethoven’s Deafness “ Though born with a fiery, ac..." target="_blank"> 18. Beethoven’s Deafness “ Though born with a fiery, active temperament I was soon to withdraw from society, to live a life alone. If at times I tried to forget all this, oh how harshly was I flung back by the doubly sad experience of my bad hearing. Yet it wasn’t possible for me to say to people, “Speak Louder, shout for I am deaf! Ah, how could I possibly admit to an infirmity in the one sense that ought to be more perfect in me than in others, a sense that I once possessed in the highest degree.” “ How humiliated I have felt if somebody standing b..." target="_blank"> 19. “ How humiliated I have felt if somebody standing beside me heard the sound of a flute in the distance and I heard nothing...It is impossible for me to say to people, ‘Speak louder, for I am deaf.’ How would it be possible for me to admit to a weakness of the one sense that should be perfect to a higher degree in me than in theirs. So forgive me if you see me draw back from your company which I would so gladly share. I would have ended my life. It was only my art that held me back for it seemed impossible to leave the world until I have brought forth all that is within me.” — Beethrange Doctors poured warm mi..." target="_blank"> 20. Medical methods back then... Doctors poured warm milk and crushed nuts in Beethoven’s ears, telling him that this would help restore his hearing! Doctors rubbed Beethoven’s arms with an ointment until they blistered, then punctured and drained the blisters…telling him that this would help restore his hearing! Man at some unexpected time in ..." target="_blank"> 21. Beethovenian Pathos Man at some unexpected time in his life will sink to the depths of his existence, into the depths of chaos. It is only HE that can make the decision to turn the chaos into a triumphant victory. Rising out of the depths of human chaos is humanity’s primary task for survival. Shows up in music. 22. Beethovenian Pathos Shows up in music. Sense of despair. Sense of acceptance Sense of reconciliation Sense of victory over despair. “ I am resolved to rise superior to every obstacle...." target="_blank"> 23. “ I am resolved to rise superior to every obstacle. With whom need I be afraid of measuring my own strength? I will take Fate by the throat. It shall not overcome me. O how beautiful it is to be alive—would that I could live a thousand times.” -Beethrange Beethoven died in Vienna, Austria..." target="_blank"> 24. Beethoven’s death Beethoven died in Vienna, Austria in 1827. Thousands of people lined the streets during his funeral procession to pay tribute. Wrote many works for piano ..." target="_blank"> 25. Beethoven, the composer Wrote many works for piano Wrote music that required improvement of the piano For years, his compositions drew mixed reactions Critics and journalists hassled him Intellect, Intellect, Intellect. Why must Herr Beethoven write such difficult and complex music? It sounds like cats fighting! Cannot he write a decent singable melody? “ I carry my thoughts within me long, often very lo..." target="_blank"> 26. “ I carry my thoughts within me long, often very long before I write them down. As I know what I want, the fundamental idea never deserts me. It mounts, it grows in stature. I hear, I see the picture in its whole extent standing all of a piece before my spirit, and there remains for me only the task of writing it down.” -Beethcooktop 32 Piano Sonattogether 27. Some of his Works 32 Piano Sonatas Moonlight Sonata Sonata Pathetique Fur Elise Fidelio (his only opera) 9 Symphonies Choral Symphony …#9 (Ode to Joy) Beethoven’s Fifth …#5 Pastorale …..#6 Supreme architecns 28. Beethoven Symphonies Supreme architect Tied all movements into a theme 5 th Fate versus expect 9 th F..." target="_blank"> 29. Beethoven Symphonies 9 th Finale Ode To Happiness Archetypical Sonata All..." target="_blank"> 32. Symphony #5 C minor op. 67. Archetypical Sonata Allegro Form. Three note motive. Shows up throughout the whole symphony. What is this piece about? Beet..." target="_blank"> 33. Beethoven Piano Sonata in C minor. Pathetique Beethovenian Pathos in each movement Dramatic quality, sudden dynamic changes Adagio section that is hymn-like 2 nd and 3 rd movements are in Rondo form Mvt.1 Slow intro ..." target="_blank"> 34. Beethovenian Pathos Mvt.1 Slow intro Tempo rubato Sense of sadness and then anger/ desperation as the music moves to the fast section. Mvt. 2. Slow and hymnl-ike 35. Beethovenian Pathos Mvt. 2. Slow and hymnl-ike Sense of calm acceptance Familiar template Mvt. 3. Risi..." target="_blank"> 36. Beethovenian Pathos Mvt. 3. Rising out of chaos. Sounds of triumph. composed by evolving and revis..." target="_blank"> 37. Ludwig van Beethoven composed by evolving and revising musical ideas and compositions kept notebooks of themes and ideas B’s manuscripts, unlike Mozart’s, are a MESS--a sea of cross-outs, arrows, re-writes, etc. Much of B’s music was composed in deafness (total by age 29!) He could only hear the music in his head. works are larger, longer, more complex TRANSITION composer: B’s last two composition periods and styles clearly point the way to the coming Romanticism. composed for himself and future, NOT for publishers or middle class market For Beethoven music is much more important to human existence than mere entertainment! 1. Early years a. Beethoven bor..." target="_blank"> 38. 1. Early years a. Beethoven born in Bonn b. Studied under Christian Gottlob Neefe (1748-98) 1. Court organist at Bonn 2. Wrote Singspiels and songs c. 1787: Brief visit to Vienna, may have played for Mozart d. 1790: Haydn hears Beethoven's music and urges the archbishop of Cologne to send him to Vienna 2. Vienna a. Beethoven moves to..." target="_blank"> 39. 2. Vienna a. Beethoven moves to Vienna in November of 1792 b. Studies with a number of composers 1. 1792-94: studied with Haydn 2. 1794: Johann Schenk (1753-1836): composer of Singspiels 3. 1794: Johann Georg Albrechtsberger: teaches Beethoven counterpoint 4. Antonio Salieri (1750-1825): teaches vocal composition 3. Compositional overview a. 9 ..." target="_blank"> 40. 3. Compositional overview a. 9 symphonies b. 11 overtures c. Incidental music to plays d. 1 violin concerto e. 5 piano concertos f. 16 string quartets g. 9 piano trios h. 10 vioin sonatas i. 5 cello sonatas j. 30 large piano sonatas k. Numerous piano variations l. 1 oratorio m. 1 opera n. 2 Masses (including the Missa Solemnis in D) o. Arias, songs and 1 song cycle 1. Classical E..." target="_blank"> 41. His Musical Style: Three Periods 1. Classical Elements: Musical style learned at the hands of Mozart and Haydn. Use of sonata allegro form. Perfect architecture in his music. Balanced melodies. Diatonic Harmony 5. The "Three Periods" and Beethoven Hist..." target="_blank"> 42. 5. The "Three Periods" and Beethoven Historiography a. It is customary to divide Beethoven's works into three periods on the basis of style and chronology b. "Bonn" period is usually not taken into accounting 5. The "Three Periods" and Beethoven Hist..." target="_blank"> 43. 5. The "Three Periods" and Beethoven Historiography (cont.) c. Periodic breakdown 1. Early Period in Vienna (1792-1802 ) Six String Quartets, Op.18/1-6 The first 10 piano sonatas (through Op.14) Symphonies 1 & 2 5. The "Three Periods" and Beethoven Hist..." target="_blank"> 44. 5. The "Three Periods" and Beethoven Historiography (conns .) C. Periodic breakdown 2. Middle Period: Beethoven's "Heroic" period (1803-1816) Symphonies 3-8 - Egmont Coriolan overture - Fidelio Piano concertos in G and Eb - Violin concerto Piano sonatas through Op.90 String quartets:Op.59/1-3 ("Rasumovsky"), Op.74 ("Harp"), Op.95 ("Quartetto serioso") 5. The "Three Periods" and Beethoven Hist..." target="_blank"> 45. 5. The "Three Periods" and Beethoven Historiography (cont.) c. Periodic breakdown 3. Late Period: Reflective and introspective style ( 1817-1827) Last 5 piano sonatas Diabelli Variations Missa solemnins Sonatas 1. Op.2/1-3 (f,A,C): Pub..." target="_blank"> 46. Sonatas 1. Op.2/1-3 (f,A,C): Publ.1796 & Dedicated to Haydn 2. Op.7 (Eb): publ. in 1797 3. Op.10 No.1 (c min.) 4. Op.13 "Pathetique" slow mov't First Period Characteristic texture 1. Frequ..." target="_blank"> 47. Characteristic texture 1. Frequent use of octaves 2. Thick piano writing First Period Contemporaries that may have influenced Beethcooktop ..." target="_blank"> 48. Contemporaries that may have influenced Beethoven 1. Muzio Clementi (1752-1832) 2. Jan Ladislav Dussek (1760-1812) 3. Dussek's Grande Sonate, Op.44 "Les adieux" (Eb) publ.1800 may have influenced Beethoven's Op.81a "Les adieux" of 1810 First Period Expanded works. 49. Second Period Expanded works. Form, melody, dynamics Explosive accents. Longer Movements in Symphonies Hymn-like calmness in his slower movements. A. Background B. Symphony no.3 (..." target="_blank"> 50. A. Background B. Symphony no.3 (Eb) "Eroica" C. Fidelio D. Piano Sonatas E. Piano Concertos Second Period A. Background 1. By 1803 Beethov..." target="_blank"> 51. A. Background 1. By 1803 Beethoven was recognized as the foremost pianis and composer for piano 2. Patronage: differed from that of Mozart and Haydn, Beethoven was extremely independent, and drove a hard bargain both with publishers and patrons Second Period B. Symphony no.3 (Eb) "Eroica”: Composed in 18..." target="_blank"> 52. B. Symphony no.3 (Eb) "Eroica”: Composed in 1803 1. Originally dedicated to Napoleon but Beethoven tears up dedication when Napoleon declares himself Emperor in 1804. 1806 dedication "Heroic Symphony... to celebrate the memory of a great man" 2. Significance a. Expansive movements and extraordinary length b. 2nd mov't is a funeral march (C minor) c. 4th mov't is a set of variations (w/fugato episodes) Second Period C. Fidelio Compositional history..." target="_blank"> 53. C. Fidelio Compositional history a. Most problematic compostion as it was revised numrous times b. Composed initially in 1803, First perf. in Vienna in 1805 c. 1805-1806 - Originally has 3 acts but revises and shortens to 2 acts - March 1806 perf. of this version is immediately withdrawn d. 1814 version: The 1st successful production (extensive revision) Second Period D. Piano Sonatas 1. Op.27/1-2: F..." target="_blank"> 54. D. Piano Sonatas 1. Op.27/1-2: From ca.1802 known as the "Moonlight" Sonata Each designated as "quasi una fantasia" 2. Op.53 (C) "Waldstein Sonata" and Op.57 (f) "Appassionata" Exemplary piano works of the middle period Each is in three mov't scheme (fast-slow-fast) Formal schemes of the sonata, rondo and variation are stretched to the limits Second Period E. Piano Concertos 1. Composed c..." target="_blank"> 55. E. Piano Concertos 1. Composed concertos for his own concert appearances 2. Piano concertos nos.1-3 (C,Bb,c) All date from early years in Vienna Concertos influenced by Mozart 3. Violin Concerto, D maj. Op.61 (1806) Second Period A. Background 1. 1810-1815 as a ..." target="_blank"> 56. A. Background 1. 1810-1815 as a prosperous period for Beethoven 2. Health deteriorating, deafness worsening 3. Compositional output in the final years a. 1816-1821: last 5 piano sonatas b. 1822: Missa Solemnis c. 1823: Diabelli Variations d. 1824: Symphony no.9 e. 1825-26: String Quartets Third Period B. Characteristics of the late style -- Meditati have ..." target="_blank"> 57. B. Characteristics of the late style -- Meditative quality a. Manifest in the extensive development of themes b. Late use of variation forms --> thematic development lengthier passages subjected to dev. rather than short bar-long motives c. Variation techniques used by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven Third Period B. Characteristics of the late style (Cont.) 58. B. Characteristics of the late style (Cont.) Meditative quality (Cont.) e. Fugato and use of contrapuntal textures 1. Fugal movements a. Finales of Op.106 and 110 Piano Sonatas b. Grosse Fuge c. Gloria and Credo of the Mass in D d. 2 double fugues in the finale of the 9th Symphony f. Use of nontraditional movement plans 1. Op.111 Piano Sonata: 2 mov't 2. Op.131 String Quartet (C#min): 7 sections (mov't) Third Period C. Mass in D 1. Beethoven regard..." target="_blank"> 59. C. Mass in D 1. Beethoven regarded the Mass as his greatest work 2. Mass as a single musical unity, a symphony in 5 mov't D. Ninth Symphony 1. Premiered on May 7, 1824 2. Significant features a. Choral finale 1. Setting of Schiller's "Ode to Joy" 2. Beethoven selects stanzas about universal brotherhood of man b. Double fugue in the finale Third Period Chromatic harmonies. 60. Final period Chromatic harmonies. Easier to produce for Beethoven due to the fact that the hands did not have to move so far on the piano. Music? “Not for you.. For a later time. Beethoven Symphony No. 5 in C..." target="_blank"> 67. LOG Beethoven Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 Symphony I = Standard symphony format IMP Romantic characteristics cyclicism CA 1790 Music Journalism explode..." target="_blank"> 69. Music Journalism CA 1790 Music Journalism exploded on the European scene. Middle class people wanted to read essays, analyses, and criticisms about new compositions, performers, instruments, concert halls, etc. (ANYTHING MUSIC!) They bought music newspapers, journals, and magazines by the millions. While these music rags loved and praised Beethoven’s pianistic virtuosity (until deafness curtailed his playing), they mercilessly and audaciously condemned most of his compositions! “Intellect, intellect, intellect!” Herr Beethoven’s music is too complex. It isn’t musical entertainment; it’s intellectual “mind games.” Once again Beethoven wrote something that no one wants to hear. These invectives and journalistic fulminations bothered Beethoven a great deal. However, he is known to have replied to at least one upstart reporter, “Of course you don’t understand it (implying the interviewer had neither the intelligence nor world view). I wrote the piece for future generations. They will understand and appreciate it.” He was correct. Sonata..." target="_blank"> 70. Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1 Kamien, p. 193, CD #2 Sonata form Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda T1 B T2 CT T1 B T2 Ct What? How? •••— motive What change from Expos? What instruments? What instruments? LONG! •••— New ideas 4. 1. 2. 3. Sonata type 71. Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1 Kamien, Sonata form Exposition Development Recapitulation T1 B T2 CT T1 B T2 Ct What? How? •••— motive What change from Expos? What instruments? What instruments? LONG! •••— New concepts This movement is UNIFIED l..." target="_blank"> 78. Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 1 This movement is UNIFIED like no earlier piece had ever been! Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda T1 B T2 CT T1 B T2 Ct What? •••— motive •••— motive •••— motive •••— motive Listen to entire piece I = contrasting key “time ou..." target="_blank"> 79. Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 2 I = contrasting key “time out,” lyrical double theme & variations (Why not a rondo?) A B A’ B’ A” (?) A’’’ Coda Ths A & B Mood? Instruments? I = scherzo (“joke”) minuens ..." target="_blank"> 80. Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 3 I = scherzo (“joke”) minuet & trio form & triple meter BUT character is rough and rollicking, not genteel •••— motive R A B A’ energy level? Perceived tempo? Texture? Dynamic? Virtuoso double base Listen fo..." target="_blank"> 81. Symphony No. 5 Bridge between mvts. 3 & 4 Listen for: timpani: •••— motive R repeated patterns--high strings ambiguous mode (How will this symphony end?) C minor? (turmoil, struggle, failure) C major? (victory, triumph, overcoming) Crescendo at end leads to Mvt 4 Mvt 1: •••— motive used in every p..." target="_blank"> 83. Symphony No. 5 Mvt 1: •••— motive used in every part of sonata form Cyclicism : •••— motive used in Mvts 1, 3, 3-4 bridge, 4. (It is even obscurely used in mvt 2!!!) Mvts 3 & 4 tied together by ambiguous bridge Unified 1. Postponement of gratification, “emotional progre..." target="_blank"> 84. 1. Postponement of gratification, “emotional progression” 2. Conflict & struggle idea of C minor 3. Symphony is more highly unified than earlier ones 4. Symphony deals with emotion , passion Symphony No. 5 Romantic Notions: Mvt. 1 Mvt. 2 Mvt. 3 Mvt. 4 C minor C Major Beethoven String Quartet in C..." target="_blank"> 85. LOG Beethoven String Quartet in C Minor, Op . 18, No. 4, Mvt. 4 String Quartet movement I = rondo String quartet = ?? What is the meaning of Op. (opus)? Third..." target="_blank"> 90. Beethoven Violin Concerto in D Major, Op. 61. Third Movement: Written in 1806 From his first and second period of compositional period. Development of a five note motive.