Pressure gradient is the flow rate that a liquid with a pipe. This is directly proportional come the difference between the pressure at the two ends of the pipe and also inversely proportional come the pip’s resistance. The pressure gradient is straight dependent top top blood vessel radius which essentially controls blood flow. The bigger the blood courage radius, the much more blood flow or liquid flow. The smaller blood courage radius, the class blood or fluid flow.

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2. Define the impact that the circulation tube radius change had on flow rate. Exactly how well go the outcomes compare v your prediction?

Flow tube radius readjust has a direct effect on circulation rate. As confirmed in this lab, when circulation tube radius was increased, the flow rate was additionally increased. Lock are directly proportional. As shown from the text, when flow tube radius boosts in a blood vessel, the circulation rate is lot more complimentary flowing and also flows a lot faster as the radius is increased.

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When starting with 1.5mm that radius, the circulation was really slow, however when boosted to 2mm, 3mm, and eventually to 5mm, the circulation within the blood vessel incrementally increased.

3. Describe the impact that radius alters have top top the laminar circulation of a fluid.

Laminar flow is characterized as the free-flowing blood in the center of the vessel. Radius readjust is straight proportional top top laminar flow. In a constricted vessel, proportionately more blood is in call with the vessel wall surface and over there is much less laminar flow, substantially diminishing the price of blood circulation in the vessel, however if the vessel is much more dilated, or the radius is increased, more blood flow is able to gain in, thus increasing the blood flow.

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The enlarge the radius, the much more laminar circulation of fluid.

4. Why carry out you think the plot was not linear? (Hint: look in ~ the relationship of the variables in the equation). How well go the results compare through your prediction?

If the variables space radius top top the X-axis and also flow price on the Y-axis, the experiment referred to as for the experimenter to incrementally rise the radius and also plot the results. As we know, radius is straight proportional to flow rate in that as the radius rises so walk the flow rate, therefore, the plotted graph needs to be linear. If one increases, for this reason does the other going in a right line!

Activity 2 Questions:

1. Define the contents in the blood that influence viscosity?

The materials in the blood that impact viscosity space the presences the plasma proteins and also formed aspects such as white blood cell (leukocytes), red blood cell (erythrocytes), and platelets. When these formed elements and plasma protein in the blood slide previous one another, over there is rise in the resistance come flow.

2. Define the impact that the viscosity adjust had on flow rate. How well walk the results compare v your prediction?

Viscosity is characterized as the thickness or stickiness the a fluid. In regards to circulation rate, they are inversely comparable and thus together you increase viscosity or the “thickness” the the blood, the flow rate decreases. As viewed in the graph, increasing the viscosity inversely to reduce the circulation rate each time you increased it through 1.

3. Define the graph of circulation versus viscosity.

As confirmed in the graph, the constants in this experiment were radius, length, and pressure. The variables were circulation rate and viscosity. The y axis represented circulation rate and also the x axis represented viscosity. Together viscosity increased, the circulation rate diminished causing a linear or inverse curve partnership going down.

4. Comment on the result that polycythemia would have on viscosity and on blood flow.

Polycythemia is a problem in i beg your pardon excess red blood cells space present. Us learned earlier that boost in red blood cells outcomes in an increase in blood viscosity. Boost in blood viscosity directly affects blood flow, in that blood flow would decrease. Thus, the existence of polycythemia would certainly inversely impact blood circulation rate by diminish it.

Activity 3 Questions:

1. I beg your pardon is more likely to occur, a readjust in blood courage radius or a adjust in blood vessel length?

A readjust in blood ship radius is more like come occur due to the fact that blood vessel size only rises as we flourish into maturity and in adulthood blood courage lengths remain constant. The only possibility of blood ship length transforming is when we obtain or shed weight. Through the procedure of vasodilation, or the smoothing the the blood courage muscle, girlfriend can adjust the radius that the vessel much more frequently.

2. Define the effect that the readjust in blood ship length had on circulation rate. Exactly how well did the results compare v your prediction?

Blood vessel length, when increased causes more friction or resistance thus making the more daunting for blood to flow through the vessel. In summation, raising blood vessel length inversely results flow rate yet decreasing flow rate. My prediction to be that an increase in blood vessel length would inversely impact blood flow. As evidenced in this experiment, through the rise of the blood ship length, there was a diminish in blood flow.

3. Explain why you think blood ship radius can have a larger effect on the body that alters in blood vessel length.

In the blood flow equation (as seen to the right), blood circulation is directly proportional come the fourth power of vessel radius. Dramatic alters happen in regards come blood flow since of tiny changes in blood courage radius. The smaller the blood vessel radius, the better the resistance. Blood courage radius is the single most crucial factor in identify blood flow resistance.

4. Describe the impact that excessive weight would have on blood flow and also why.

As referenced native this experiment, weight, either get or loss results blood ship length. A change in blood ship length have the right to only be transformed through the get or ns of weight. As evidenced in this experiment, once blood vessel length is enhanced as a an outcome of weight gain, over there is higher resistance or friction within the vessel make blood circulation through that vessel more an overwhelming thus diminish blood flow. Obesity different effect blood flow in that, over there are enhanced blood courage lengths, causing better friction or resistance within the vessel and also a diminish in blood flow.

Activity 4 Questions:

1. Define the impact that pressure alters had on flow rate. How well go the outcomes compare with your prediction.

Pressure changes have a profound result on flow rate. As press increases, flow rate likewise increases. Lock are directly proportional. In regards to my prediction, i predicted the as push increased, therefore would flow rate.

2. How does the plot different from the plots for pipe radius, viscosity, and also tube length? exactly how well go the outcomes compare v your prediction.

The plot for push in direct in that, rise in press is straight proportional to flow rate. It was a perfectly directly line upwards as pressure increased. In regards come the plot for pipe radius, it to be very comparable in that outcomes were an ext curve shaped however went in the same directly upward. Together vessel radius enhanced so did flow rate. In regards to viscosity, they were considerably different, as viscosity increased, the rate of flow decreased because there was much more resistance. In regards to pipe length, this is drastically various than pressure due to the fact that with an increase in pipe length, over there is a to decrease in rate of flow because there is more resistance in ~ the vessel itself. After finding out that vessel radius is the greatest aspect in regards to flow rate, i predicted the with an increase in push there would additionally be an increase in circulation rate.

3. Define why pressure changes are no the best way to control blood flow.

Pressure transforms are not the best way to regulate blood flow since it might place an ext stress on the love (which reasons the early pressure) and also requires the love to readjust its pressure of contraction. The blood vessels need time to respond to that adjust in force and the huge arteries approximately the heart. It compelled for them come have more tissue in their tunics come accommodate the heart and it’s rise of force. Plus, the best method to regulate blood flow, as viewed from this experiments is through boosting vessel radius.

4. Use you data to calculation the increase in circulation rate in ml/min/mm Hg.

In this experiment, radius, viscosity, and also length remained constant, and also pressure and also flow price were the variables. I began off v a push of 25 mm Hg and also the circulation rate was 35mm/min. Together I rise the pressure by 25 mm Hg each time, the circulation rate raised by around 35 mm/min every time.

Activity 5 Questions:

1. Describe the result of enhancing the right flow tube radius top top the flow rate, resistance, and also pump rate.

Increasing the right flow tube radius is straight proportional come increasing flow rate. As evidenced in other experiments, increasing tube radius reduce resistance for this reason increasing circulation rate. In addition, together the right flow tube radius increased, so did the pump rate. Every time the I raised the right flow tube radius by .5mm, the pump rate increased as go the flow rate due to the fact that of the decrease in resistance.

2. Explain what the left and also right beakers in the experiment exchange mail to in the person heart.

The left beaker represents the next of the heart where blood is pumped with the lung to the opposite next of the heart. The appropriate beaker to represent the side of the heart the delivers blood come the device of the body.

3. Briefly explain how the human heart might compensate for circulation rate alters to preserve blood pressure. The human heart compensates for circulation rate changes by altering heart rate, stroke volume or resistance. If resistance decreases, love rate have the right to increase to keep the pressure difference. If resistance is decreasing, over there is rise in circulation rate.

Activity 6 Questions:

1. Explain the Frank-Starling law in the heart.

The Frank-Starling legislation in the heart describes when an ext than the regular volume that blood is went back to the heart by the venous system. In this process, the heart is stretched which results in a more forceful contraction of the ventricles. This causes more than normal amounts of blood to be ejected by the love which raises stroke volume.

2. Define what taken place to the pump rate once you raised the stroke volume. Why execute you think this occurred? exactly how well did the outcomes compare v your prediction?

When you boost the stroke volume, over there is an station decrease in pump rate, even though over there is a constant amount of circulation that results. This is directly the opposite of my predictions, yet ns learned the the factor why pump price decreases as soon as stroke volume increases is because the heart intrinsically transforms stroke volume come accommodate changes in preload or during the period where the ventricles are stretched by the end diastolic volume. Stroke volume is likewise controlled by the strength and force of contractility the the heart.

3. Explain how the heart alters stroke volume?

The heart transforms stroke volume by changing the pump volume or the contractility. By changing the contractility, friend are altering the strength of the cardiac muscle contraction and its capacity to generate force.

4. Define the intrinsic determinants that manage stroke volume.

The intrinsic factors that manage stroke volume are heart rate and also cardiac output. Complete blood flow is proportional to cardiac output. Thus, when the punch volume decreases, the heart price music rise to preserve cardiac output. Yet, when stroke volume increases, the heart rate need to decrease to maintain cardiac output.

Activity 7 Questions:

1. Explain how the heart might compensate for alters in peripheral resistance.

The heart can compensate for alters in peripheral resistance by decreasing blood viscosity and also through adjusting the pressure of convulsion of the heart. Raising contractility or forcing contraction of the love combats afterload and blood flow resistance. Boosting contractility will boost cardiac calculation by increasing stroke volume.

2. I beg your pardon mechanism had the best compensatory effect? how well did the outcomes compare v your prediction?

My prediction to be that boosting the left flow tube radius would have actually the greatest impact in regards come blood flow into the appropriate tube, however adjusting the pressure of convulsion of the heart had the greatest compensatory effect on the circulation of blood into the best beaker.

3. Define what occurred when the pump pressure and also the beaker push were the same. Exactly how well did the results compare v your prediction?

When the pump pressure and also the beaker push were the same, the valve would not open due to the fact that there was poor driving pressure to force liquid out of the pump. This was adverse to my prediction, where I predicted the there would certainly be rise of flow, however I to be incorrect, in that nothing happened and there was no flow.

4. Explain whether it would certainly be better to adjust heart price or blood ship diameter to attain blood flow alters at a neighborhood level.

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I think the it would be much better to change heart price in order to achieve blood flow alters at a neighborhood level. Return the text and experiments have actually demonstrated that it is more effective to boost blood courage diameter in bespeak to increase the price of circulation within blood vessels, i think that exercise boosts your heart price which is directly attached to boost in blood flow.