formerly the Archives and also Collections Society
|Collections research||England expects that every guy will perform his duty|
Nelson used the "Telegraphic signals or naval Vocabulary" <1> in ~ Trafalgar. The "England expects the every man will execute his duty" signal required 12 elevator which were comprised of the following flags: 253, 269, 863, 261, 471, 958, 220, 370, 4, 21, 19 and also 24. The an initial substitute (D?) was used for the second 2 in 220.
Nelson initially asked because that "England confides the every guy will do his duty". The word "confides" did no exist in the code book, however Nelson had actually acquiesced to Lt Pasco"s suggestion to change that word v the code for "expects". <2>
The native "duty" did not exist either and also had to it is in spelled out with four hoists using the numeric order of the letter D=4, U=21, T=19 and Y=25. <3>
However, 2 remarks room in order, concerning:
a) some chroniclers omit "that" - password 863 - as a 3rd "word"; however, that is inclusion, making the signal a complete of 12 rather than 11 hoists, appears to be the many probable, however absolute proof is lackingb) the copy that the VICTORY"s Signal book used at Trafalgar *was* (late C19th) in the imperial United services Museum (it is *possibly* the copy currently in the brother Library referenced as "SIGNAL-BOOK because that the pearls of War, 1799" : the printed official code authorize by the Admiralty, v MS. Additions. Came before (f. 2) through a published circular come " the respective captains and also commanders that His Majesty"s ships," signed by
Concerning the accuracy that The boys Own paper illustration
a) The signal for "that" (863) is missing; the Boy"s Own paper of 1885 - from which the publish came - continued a relatively common Victorian tradition of equating "confides that" v "expects", therefore dropping the adverbb) The remaining "inaccuracies" come from replacing "substitute" with "8", "8" v "5", and "5" v "substitute" - whether among the Popham to adjust was published with this difference, and whether it to be an embraced version, or a wrong is unclear. The collection *should* be the of 1803 - and certainly a rapid glance in ~ Wilson"s "Flags in ~ Sea" reflects the Boy"s Own picture to it is in in error.Finally, as with much historic detail, there is still and most probably always will be part residual factual doubt as to the an exact flags used; watch the 1837 James" naval History, Vol 4, p34 "there is not, that us are aware of, a solitary publication that offers this message precisely as it to be delivered".