The mrs reproductive device is a complicated but fascinating subject. It has the capacity to duty intimately with practically every various other body mechanism for the purpose of reproduction.

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The female reproductive organs have the right to be subdivided right into the internal and external genitalia (see the photos below). The interior genitalia are those offal that room within the true pelvis. These include the vagina, uterus, cervix, uterine tube (oviducts or fallopian tubes), and ovaries. The exterior genitalia lie outside the true pelvis. These encompass the perineum, mons pubis, clitoris, urethral (urinary) meatus, labia majora and minora, vestibule, better vestibular (Bartholin) glands, Skene glands, and also periurethral area.

woman reproductive organs, anterior view.
female reproductive organs, sagittal section.

External Genitalia

The vulva, also known as the pudendum, is a term offered to describe those exterior organs that may be clearly shows in the perineal area (see the photos below). The vulva consists of the following organs: mons pubis, labia minora and majora, hymen, clitoris, vestibule, urethra, Skene glands, greater vestibular (Bartholin) glands, and vestibular bulbs. <1, 2, 3> The limits include the mons pubis anteriorly, the rectum posteriorly, and also the genitocrural wrinkle (thigh folds) laterally.

outside female genitalia.
Deeper see of exterior structures.

The mons pubis is the rounded part of the vulva where sexual hair development occurs at the moment of puberty. This area may be described as straight anterosuperior to the pubic symphysis.

The labia majora room 2 large, longitudinal wrinkle of adipose and fibrous tissue. They differ in size and distribution from female come female, and the dimension is dependent upon adipose content. They prolong from the mons anteriorly come the perineal body posteriorly. The labia majora have actually hair follicles.

The labia minora, likewise known as nymphae, space 2 small cutaneous wrinkle that space found between the labia majora and also the introitus or quality vestibule. Anteriorly, the labia minora join to form the frenulum the the clitoris.

The hymen is a slim membrane found at the enntrance gate to the vaginal orifice. Often, this membrane is perforated prior to the start of menstruation, allowing flow that menses. The hymen varies significantly in shape.

The clitoris is an erectile structure discovered beneath the anterior joining of the labia minora. Its width in an adult mrs is around 1 cm, with an average length of 1.5–2.0 cm. The clitoris is comprised of 2 crura, which connect to the periosteum of the ischiopubic rami. It is a an extremely sensitive structure, analogous to the masculine penis. The is innervated by the dorsal nerve that the clitoris, a terminal branch that the pudendal nerve.

Between the clitoris and also the vaginal introitus (opening) is a triangle area recognized as the vestibule, which extends come the posterior fourchette. The vestibule is whereby the urethral (urinary) meatus is found, around 1 cm anterior come the vaginal orifice, and also it likewise gives rise to the opening of the Skene glands bilaterally. The urethra is written of membranous connective tissue and links the urinary bladder come the vestibule externally. A mrs urethra ranges in length from 3.5 to 5.0 cm.

The Skene glands secrete lubrication in ~ the opened of the urethra. The better vestibular (Bartholin) glands are additionally responsible because that secreting lubrication to the vagina, v openings just exterior the hymen, bilaterally, in ~ the posterior facet of the vagina. Every gland is small, comparable in form to a kidney bean.

Finally, the vestibular bulbs space 2 masses that erectile organization that lie deep come the bulbocavernosus muscles bilaterally.

The vagina extends from the vulva externally to the uterine cervix internally. The is situated within the pelvis, anterior come the rectum and posterior come the urinary bladder. The vagina lies at a 90º angle in relation to the uterus. The vagina is held in place by endopelvic fascia and also ligaments (see the photo below).

The vagina is lined by rugae, which are positioned in crease throughout. These allow easy distention, especially during child bearing. The framework of the vagina is a network of connective, membranous, and erectile tissues.

The pelvic diaphragm, the sphincter urethrae and also transverse peroneus muscles, and also the perineal membrane assistance the vagina. The sphincter urethrae and the transverse peroneus space innervated by perineal branches the the pudendal nerve. The pelvic diaphragm primarily refers come the levator ani and also the coccygeus and is innervated by branches of sacral nerves S2-S4.

The vascular supply to the vagina is mostly from the quality artery, a branch of the anterior department of the interior iliac artery. Several of this arteries may be found on either next of the pelvis to richly it is provided the vagina.

The nerve it is provided to the vagina is mainly from the autonomic concerned system. Sensory fibers to the reduced vagina arise indigenous the pudendal nerve, and also pain fibers room from sacral nerve roots. Lymphatic drainage that the vagina is normally to the outside iliac nodes (upper third of the vagina), the common and internal iliac nodes (middle third), and also the superficial inguinal nodes (lower third).

The uterus is the inverted pear-shaped woman reproductive organ that lies in the midline the the body, in ~ the pelvis between the bladder and also the rectum. It is thick-walled and also muscular, v a lining that, throughout reproductive years, alters in solution to hormone stimulation transparent a woman’s monthly cycle.

The uterus have the right to be divided into 2 parts: the many inferior aspect is the cervix, and also the bulk of the organ is called the human body of the uterus (corpus uteri). Between these 2 is the isthmus, a short area that constriction.

The body of the uterus is globe-shaped and also is generally situated in one anteverted position, in ~ a 90º angle to the vagina. The upper facet of the body is dome-shaped and is referred to as the fundus; the is frequently the many muscular component of the uterus. The body of the uterus is responsible because that holding a pregnancy, and solid uterine wall surface contractions assist to expel the fetus during labor and also delivery.

The median weight that a nonpregnant, nulliparous uterus is about 40-50 g. A multiparous uterus might weigh slightly more than this, with an upper limit of about 110 g. A menopausal uterus is small and atrophied and typically weighs much less.

The cavity that the uterus is flattened and triangular. The uterine tubes get in the uterine cavity bilaterally in the superolateral section of the cavity.

The uterus is linked to its bordering structures by a series of ligaments and also connective tissue. The pelvic peritoneum is attached come the body and also the cervix as the vast ligament, reflecting onto the bladder. The wide ligament attaches the uterus to the lateral pelvic next walls. Within the wide base of the broad ligament, between its anterior and posterior laminae, connective organization strands associated with the uterine and also vaginal vessels help to assistance the uterus and also vagina. Together, these strands are referred to as the cardinal ligament.

Rectouterine ligaments, lying in ~ peritoneal folds, large posteriorly indigenous the cervix to reach the sacrum. The ring ligaments of the uterus are lot denser structures and connect the uterus to the anterolateral abdominal wall surface at the deep inguinal ring. Lock lie in ~ the anterior lamina the the wide ligament. In ~ the ring ligament is the artery of Sampson, a tiny artery that need to be ligated during hysterectomy.

The vasculature that the uterus is derived from the uterine arteries and also veins. The uterine vessels arise from the anterior division of the internal iliac, and branches that the uterine artery anastomose with the ovarian artery follow me the uterine tube.

The nerve supply and lymphatic drainage of the uterus room complex. Lymphatic drainage is primarily to the lateral aortic, pelvic, and iliac nodes that surround the iliac vessels. The nerve supply is attained v the forgiveness nervous mechanism (by way of the hypogastric and ovarian plexuses) and the parasympathetic nervous device (by method of the pelvic splanchnic nerves from the 2nd through 4th sacral nerves).

The cervix is the inferior portion of the uterus, separating the human body of the uterus indigenous the vagina. The cervix is cylindrical in shape, v an endocervical canal situated in the midline, permitting passage of semen into the uterus. The external opening into the vagina is termed the external os, and also the internal opening into the endometrial cavity is termed the internal os. The internal os is the portion of a female cervix the dilates to enable delivery that the fetus during labor. The average length of the cervix is 3-5 cm.

The vasculature is provided by diminish branches the the uterine artery, which run bilaterally in ~ the 3 o"clock and 9 o’clock place of the cervix. The nerve supply to the cervix is via the parasympathetic nervous device by means of the second through 4th sacral segments. Plenty of pain nerve fibers run alongside this parasympathetics. Lymphatic drainage that the cervix is complex. The obturator, usual iliac, internal iliac, outside iliac, and visceral parametrial nodes space the main drainage points.

The uterine tubes (also described as oviducts or fallopian tubes) space uterine appendages situated bilaterally at the superior part of the cavity. Their primary role is to deliver sperm towards the egg, which is exit by the ovary, and then to permit passage of the fertilized egg ago to the uterus because that implantation.

The uterine tubes leave the uterus v an area well-known as the cornua and type a connection between the endometrial and also peritoneal cavities. Each pipe is approximately 10 centimeter in length and 1 centimeter in diameter and is located within a portion of the vast ligament called the mesosalpinx. The distal portion of the uterine tube ends in an orientation encircling the ovary.

The uterine tube has 3 parts. The an initial segment, closest to the uterus, is dubbed the isthmus. The 2nd segment is the ampulla, i m sorry becomes more dilated in diameter and is the typical place the fertilization. The final segment, furthest native the uterus, is the infundibulum. The infundibulum provides rise come the fimbriae, fingerlike projections that are responsible for catching the egg the is exit by the ovary.

The arterial supply to the uterine tubes is indigenous branches that the uterine and also ovarian arteries, little vessels the are situated within the mesosalpinx. The nerve it is provided to the uterine tube is via both sympathetic and also parasympathetic fibers. Sensory fibers run from thoracic segments 11-12 and lumbar segment 1. Lymphatic drainage of the uterine tube is through the iliac and also aortic nodes.

The ovaries room paired organs located on either side of the uterus in ~ the mesovarium part of the vast ligament listed below the uterine tubes. The ovaries are responsible for housing and releasing the ova, or eggs, crucial for reproduction. At birth, a woman has approximately 1-2 million eggs, however only 300 of this eggs ever mature and also are released because that the function of fertilization.

The ovaries are small and oval-shaped, exhibition a grayish color, and also have an uneven surface. The actual dimension of an ovary depends on a woman’s age and also hormonal status; the ovaries are roughly 3-5 centimeter in length during childbearing years and become much smaller and also atrophic when menopause occurs. A cross-section the the ovary reveals countless cystic frameworks that vary in size. This structures stand for ovarian follicles at various stages of development and degeneration.

Several ligaments assistance the ovary. The ovarian ligament connect the uterus and ovary. The posterior section of the wide ligament develops the mesovarium, which supports the ovary and houses the vascular supply. The suspensory ligament of the ovary (infundibular pelvic ligament), a peritoneal wrinkles overlying the ovarian vessels, attaches the ovary come the pelvic side wall.

Blood it is provided to the ovary is via the ovarian artery; both right and also left ovarian arteries originate directly from the to decrease aorta at the level that the L2 vertebra. The ovarian artery and vein enter and exit the ovary at the hilum. The left ovarian vein drains into the left renal vein, and also the best ovarian vein empties straight into the inferior vena cava.

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Nerve it is provided to the ovaries run v the vasculature in ~ the suspensory ligament that the ovary, beginning the ovary in ~ the hilum. It is provided is with the ovarian, hypogastric, and aortic plexuses. Lymphatic drainage that the ovary is mostly to the lateral aortic nodes; however, the iliac nodes may additionally be involved.