Presentation top top theme: "Spastic paralysis vs. Flaccid paralysis"— Presentation transcript:

1 Spastic paralysis vs. Flaccid paralysisDrugs and also Toxins Spastic paralysis vs. Flaccid paralysis

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2 Spastic vs. Flaccid paralysisFlaccid paralysis is as soon as the muscle can not contract at all. The muscle stays weak and floppy. Spastic paralysis is as soon as the muscle remains in contraction. Girlfriend still cannot relocate the muscle properly, yet in this case, the muscle is as well rigid.

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3 Sodium VGC Blockers Lidocaine- supplied as object anesthesiaTetrodotoxin-puffer fish and newts (TTX)‏ Saxitoxin- brought about by red tide; a kind of red algae called dinoflagellates accumulation in shellfish (SXT)‏ causes flaccid paralysis

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4 salt VGC Blockers Na VGC blockers will block the opening of the sodium, so girlfriend can’t have actually AP in ~ all. Acquire flaccid paralysis. As soon as preparing a puffer fish because that food, if the chef makes one nick in that is liver, it will contaminate the entirety meat v TTX toxin, i beg your pardon paralyzes the diaphragm. Salamanders and also newts have actually this toxin together well. Occasionally the toxin can gain through the skin simply by handling them; get tingling. Don’t lick a salamander!

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5 Vesicle blockers Clostridium botulinum:Bacterium that has a protease (enzyme that breaks down proteins). Botulinum breaks under the docking proteins the anchor vesicles come the cabinet membrane) Inhibits ACh neurotransmitter release; muscles can’t contract. Botulism is uncovered in undercooked turkey and also dented cans of food. If ingested orally, will certainly paralyze the diaphragm; die of suffocation. It reasons flaccid paralysis that is the muscle killer in “BOTOX” injections. The muscles die so the wrinkle currently relax. These tiny facial muscles deserve to grow back in three months; need another shot.

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6 mACH-R blocker/ competitorAtropine Flaccid paralysis Smooth muscle, heart, and also glands

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7 mACH-R blocker/ competitorThese block the parasympathetic system, for this reason the sympathetic gets an ext control. Blocking the parasympathetic neurons will cause flaccid paralysis in the intestines. If heart has actually stopped, inject atropine come block mACH receptor on cardiac muscles, and also heart price will increase.

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8 mACH-R blocker/ competitorYour iris has actually smooth muscle. If we block Ach, the muscles will certainly pull, opening pupil. Opium derivatives block muscarinic Ach receptors, causes dilated pupils. Chemical war drugs the stimulate the muscarinic Ach receptors causes the parasympathetic device to gain more control; rise gut motility, sweat, diarrhea, salivation. A kind of mushroom does this, too, and it can kill you.

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9 nACH-R blocker/ competitorCurare native tree sap reasons flaccid paralysis large dose: asphyxiation

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10 nACH-R blocker/ competitorSouth American Indians use curare as a toxicity on the tips of arrows. Injecting it right into the bloodstream causes death the the animal. However, the cradle system deserve to deactivate it, so it is safe to eat an animal that was killed with curare. Exactly how does it kill? nicotinic Ach receptor (nACH-R) room mainly uncovered in skeletal muscle. If girlfriend block them through curare, friend block the ability for ionotropic receptors to open, therefore Na+ cannot move in. That blocks excitation, therefore muscle will not contract, and you gain flaccid paralysis.

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11 AchE (acetylcholine esterase) BlockersNeostigmine Physostigmine Spastic paralysis this drugs are used to law Myasthenia Gravis, one autoimmune disease that reasons ptosis (droopy eyelid)

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12 Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia Gravis (autoimmune disorder). The body antibodies attacks the nicotine castle Ach receptors, therefore there space fewer of them, less Na+ coming in, fewer action potentials. Symptoms usually start in the eyelid and facial muscles, and also manifests together drooping muscle on half or both sides of the face, drooping eyelids, and also slurred speech. Their eyelid muscles are often the very first muscles to end up being fatigued. To test because that this, force open the eyelids, have actually them look up, and will quickly reason fatigue, and their lids will droop (ptosis).

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13 Myasthenia gravis therapy is to offer a medication to inhibit ACh-ase.That way, the ACh will certainly not it is in deactivated and it deserve to stay around longer to store muscles contracting. Too lot will cause spastic paralysis. Neostigmine is one anti-cholinesterase drug which reduce the symptom by inhibiting Ach-ase activity, avoiding the breakdown of Ach. Consequently, Ach levels in the synapse remain elevated, therefore Ach is accessible to bind to those couple of functional Ach receptors that are left. Neostigmine is reversible, therefore you must keep taking it daily. It is therefore useful together a medicine.

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14 Acetylcholine AntagonistsSome INSECTICIDES inhibit acetylcholinesterase, therefore Ach accumulates in the synaptic cleft and also acts together a continuous stimulus come the muscle fiber. The insects die because their respiratory tract muscles contract and also cannot relax. Various other poisons, such as CURARE, the poison provided by southern American indians in poison arrows, bind to the Ach receptor on the muscle cell membrane and prevent Ach indigenous working. That prevents muscle contraction, resulting in flaccid paralysis.

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15 irreversible pains inhibitorSarin gas Spastic paralysis Ventilator until AchE turnover This is a irreversible Ach inhibitor. The world who endure Sarin gas strike are hospitalized. They need to work to breathe (diaphragm stops working, for this reason they usage their ab muscles), so they require a ventilator and pressure chambers until there is a turnover in Ach after sufficient gene expression (takes a few weeks).

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16 Inhibitory Neuron BlockersTetanus toxin Blocks release of inhibitory neurotransmitters Muscles can not relax Spastic paralysis opposing flexor and also extensor muscles contract

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17 Inhibitory Neuron BlockersWhen you walk, the takes coordination v activating and also inhibiting muscles. Expansion of leg activates quadriceps and inhibits hamstrings. Where does this coordination originate? The somatic engine neurons innervate these muscles. When it will threshold, will release ACh top top inhibitory neurons and also excitatory neurons. This reasons flexor muscles to contract and also extensor muscle to relax, climate vice-versa, so you can walk. If you have a toxin that prohibits relax of inhibitory NT, climate excitatory will override, and cause more muscle contraction. The is what happens v tetanus toxin. When every one of the NT is excitatory and also none room inhibitory, all muscle groups contract, causing back arching, and also diaphragm contract too, and stays that way. Human dies from suffocation. Treatment is Ach-ase blockers like Curare. However you have to be careful with the medicine…. Not simply nicotinic, but muscarinic receptors also bind to ACh in bones muscle. Atropine will likewise help.

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18 Spider Venom black color widow: causes ACh releaseLack the inhibitory neurotransmitters Spastic paralysis Brazilian wandering Spider (banana spider) Spider venom boosts nitrous oxide release many venomous of every spiders/ much more human deaths

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19 Spider venom Spider venom works like tetanus toxin.The Banana spider makes a the majority of nitric oxide, i beg your pardon stimulates receptor of in penis, resulting in it come flood v blood, causing erection. Medicine companies made decision to modify this toxin and include it to Viagra, make the Viagra longer lasting.


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Spider venom and Viagra both occupational by impede the enzyme that degrades nitric oxide.

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