2. Compare the different states of matter in terms ofpotential and also kinetic energy

3. Describe the significant events that happen along a heatingcurve.

You are watching: Is the evaporation of water endothermic or exothermic

4. Translate a phase diagram.

Key Terms:

vaporization condensationevaporation equilibrium vapor pressureboiling suggest heat that vaporization freezingpoint warm of fusionsublimation deposition heatingcurve phase diagram

Notes: (14-4)

Matter ~ above Earthexists as either liquid, solid, or gas. Other than water, most matterexists in a solitary phase (liquid, solid, or gas) yet can it is in made to adjust phaseby adding or deleting press or temperature.

Energy and PhaseChanges

According come thekinetic-molecular theory, a substances step is established by the balance the itskinetic and also intermolecular forces. What this method is the you can convertmatter indigenous one phase to another by simply adding or deleting kinetic energy(heat). As soon as attempting to know the phase changes it is vital toremember what is developing in endo and exothermic reactions. Endothermic - power is being took in - bonds room breaking - commodities are much less ordered Exothermic - energy is being released - bonds are being formed - commodities are more ordered


(server.chem.ufl.edu/~itl/2045_s99/ lectures/FG11_024.GIF)

Changesin State:

liquid come gas - vaporization, by process of evaporation
solid come gas - sublimation
liquid to solid - freezing
gas to liquid - condensation
gas come solid - deposition


Evaporation is again defined by theKinetic-molecular theory. Once the kinetic energy of the molecule in aliquid come to be greater than the intermolecular attractions in between them,evaporation occurs.

within a liquid, evaporation is always occurring to some level at the surface ar of the liquid
Temperature and also evaporation rate are directly related
Liquids through high evaporation prices are claimed to it is in volatile - typically flammable because of the existence of necessary materials and also oxides
Evaporation cools a surface ar or solution by removing the molecules v the highest kinetic energy
Most solutions in a closed container room in liquid-vapor equilibrium
condensation and also evaporation rates are equal
price of molecule leaving the solution are equal to the molecules entering the liquid
The solution is in ~ equilibrium vapor pressure

Boiling Point:

The boiling suggest of a fluid is directly relatedto the vapor pressure of the liquid. Vapor pressure is a measure up of thevapor existing in a liquid. When the vapor pressure amounts to the atmosphericpressure boil occurs. It is essential to remember the vaporization isan endothermic procedure as warmth is gotten rid of from the liquid through boiling.

vapor push of a liquid is straight related to the temperature used to the liquid
the boiling suggest is directly related come the atmospheric pressure exerted ~ above the solution
boiling occurs when the vapor press = atmospheric pressure
the temperature that a liquid will certainly remain constant at the boiling point until every one of the liquid is vaporized.

Freezing and Melting:

The freezing and also melting point out of a liquid existat the exact same temperature and represent one equilibrium between the fluid andsolid phases.

melting and also freezing points room not greatly impacted by atmospheric pressure
melting counts on the heat of fusion which like the boiling is one endothermic process
freezing supplies the very same amount of power as the warmth of fushion bu is an exothermic process

Heating Curves:


((server.chem.ufl.edu/~itl/2045_s99/ lectures/FG11_024.GIF))

The heating curve is a representation of thephases that a substance contrasted to the temperature and internal power of asubstance. The blue lines represent the different phases that a substancewhile the red lines represent the heats of combination and vaporization.

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endothermic reactions move from left to right as the assets increase in kinetic energy and also become less organized

Phase Diagrams


((server.chem.ufl.edu/~itl/2045_s99/ lectures/FG11_024.GIF))

The phase diagram is an additional representation ofthe internal power of a substance contrasted with the pressure and also temperature ofits surroundings.

temperature and also pressure room inversely pertained to the procedure of vaporization
pressure has small effect on the melting and freezing the a substance
the triple suggest is a allude where all three phases happen in equilibrium