Topic Overview

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The tables below list the vitamins, what they execute in the human body (their functions), and also their resources in food.

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Water-soluble vitamins

Water-soluble vitamin travel easily through the body, and also excess amounts usually room excreted through the kidneys. The body demands water-soluble vitamins in frequent, small doses. These vitamins room not as likely as fat-soluble vitamins to reach toxicity levels. But niacin, vitamin B6, folate, choline, and also vitamin C have actually upper consumption limits. Vitamin B6 at high levels over a long period of time has been shown to cause irreversible nerve damage.

A balanced diet generally provides enough of these vitamins. World older 보다 50 and some vegetarians might need to usage supplements to get enough B12.

Water-soluble vitamin

Nutrient

Function

Sources

Thiamine (vitamin B1)

Part of one enzyme needed for power metabolism; vital to nerve function

Found in every nutritious foods items in middle amounts: pork, whole-grain or enriched breads and cereals, legumes, nuts and also seeds

Riboflavin (vitamin B2)

Part of an enzyme essential for power metabolism; crucial for common vision and skin health

Milk and also milk products; leafy green vegetables; whole-grain, enriched breads and also cereals

Niacin (vitamin B3)

Part of an enzyme needed for energy metabolism; necessary for concerned system, digestive system, and skin health

Meat, poultry, fish, whole-grain or enriched breads and also cereals, vegetables (especially mushrooms, asparagus, and also leafy environment-friendly vegetables), peanut butter

Pantothenic acid

Part of one enzyme needed for power metabolism

Widespread in foods

Biotin

Part of an enzyme required for power metabolism

Widespread in foods; also produced in intestinal street by bacteria

Pyridoxine (vitamin B6)

Part of one enzyme needed for protein metabolism; helps make red blood cells

Meat, fish, poultry, vegetables, fruits

Folic mountain

Part of an enzyme necessary for do DNA and new cells, specifically red blood cells

Leafy eco-friendly vegetables and legumes, seeds, orange juice, and liver; now added to most refined grains

Cobalamin (vitamin B12)

Part of an enzyme needed for making new cells; vital to nerve function

Meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, milk and also milk products; not discovered in tree foods

Ascorbic mountain (vitamin C)

Antioxidant ; component of an enzyme required for protein metabolism; important for immune mechanism health; aids in iron absorption

Found just in fruits and vegetables, specifically citrus fruits, vegetables in the cabbage family, cantaloupe, strawberries, peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, lettuce, papayas, mangoes, kiwifruit

Fat-soluble vitamins

Fat-soluble vitamins space stored in the body"s cells and are not excreted as conveniently as water-soluble vitamins. They do not must be consumed as frequently as water-soluble vitamins, back adequate amounts are needed. If you take too lot of a fat-soluble vitamin, that could end up being toxic. Your body is especially sensitive come too lot vitamin A from pet sources (retinol) and also too much vitamin D. A well balanced diet commonly provides enough fat-soluble vitamins.

Fat-soluble vitamins

Nutrient

Function

Sources

Vitamin A (and that precursor*, beta-carotene)

*A precursor is convert by the body to the vitamin.

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Needed because that vision, healthy skin and mucous membranes, bone and also tooth growth, immune system health

Vitamin A from pet sources (retinol): strengthened milk, cheese, cream, butter, fortified margarine, eggs, liver

Beta-carotene (from tree sources): Leafy, dark eco-friendly vegetables; dark orange fruit (apricots, cantaloupe) and also vegetables (carrots, winter squash, sweet potatoes, pumpkin)

Vitamin D

Needed for suitable absorption that calcium; stored in bones

Egg yolks, liver, fat fish, strengthened milk, fortified margarine. Once exposed come sunlight, the skin can make vitamin D.

Vitamin E

Antioxidant; protects cell walls

Polyunsaturated plant oils (soybean, corn, cottonseed, safflower); leafy green vegetables; wheat germ; whole-grain products; liver; egg yolks; nuts and also seeds

Vitamin K

Needed for appropriate blood clotting

Leafy green vegetables such together kale, collard greens, and also spinach; environment-friendly vegetables such together broccoli, brussels sprouts, and also asparagus; also produced in intestinal tract by bacteria