" data-medium-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=245" data-large-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=836" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Valkyrie (1869), oil on canvas, 243 x 194 cm, Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo. Wikimedia Commons.

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European painted narratives have been conquered by story from the classic Greek and also Roman canons. Till the 1800s, very few narrative artist tackled myths from other cultures. One early on specialist in vikings myths and background was Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892).

Born in Drammen, Norway, he trained an initial in Copenhagen, climate in the Düsseldorf Academy, prior to returning come Norway in 1861. From 1863 come 1871 he worked most of the time in Paris, but spent lot of the remainder that his job in his aboriginal Norway. He was an achieved and successful painter and also illustrator (mainly for background books ~ above Norway). His paints are in countless galleries transparent Norway and also Sweden, with a particular concentration in his family home in Drammen, 25 mile south-east that Oslo.

Valkyries and Norse Myths

One the the best-known segments of vikings mythology is the the Valkyries, a group of mrs horse-riders, often depicted as warriors, that decide which soldiers die in battle, and also which survive. They climate bear the bodies of the dead warriors on their horses to the hall of the slain, Valhalla.

Along with other stories native Norse sagas and epic poetry, they were modified to type the rigid in Wagner’s operatic sequence The Ring the the Nibelung; The Valkyries is the 2nd of the four operas, and also was an initial performed in 1870, the year in i beg your pardon the Franco-Prussian war started.

Ever since, the Valkyries have actually been unfortunately strongly linked with German nationalism, an especially in the years before the second World War, which is a strange rotate for norse myths! In more recent years, the music association has become even an ext strained, complying with the use of Wagner’s Ride the the Valkyries in Francis Ford Coppola’s epos movie set in the Vietnam War, Apocalypse Now (1979).

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" data-medium-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg?w=220" data-large-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg?w=751" class="size-full wp-image-10842" src="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg?w=940" alt="arbovalkyrie1864" srcset="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg?w=940 940w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg?w=110 110w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg?w=220 220w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg?w=768 768w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg?w=751 751w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1864.jpg 1116w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Valkyrie (1864), oil top top canvas, 263 × 203 cm, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm. Wikimedia Commons.Valkyrie (1864), currently at the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm, is the previously of Arbo’s two paints of this subject. That painted the in Paris, but it was an initial shown in Stockholm in 1866.

" data-medium-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=245" data-large-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=836" class="size-full wp-image-10843" src="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=940" alt="arbovalkyrie1869" srcset="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=940 940w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=122 122w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=245 245w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=768 768w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg?w=836 836w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbovalkyrie1869.jpg 1142w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Valkyrie (1869), oil on canvas, 243 x 194 cm, Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo. Wikimedia Commons.Five year later, Arbo painted a 2nd version, Valkyrie (1869), which has actually been preserved in Norway’s Nasjonalgalleriet in Oslo. Both follow common conventions in mirroring warrior-like women, with chain mail armour, shields, helmets, and spears. With them fly your accompanying ravens.

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" data-medium-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg?w=940" class="size-full wp-image-10832" src="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg?w=940" alt="arboasgardride" srcset="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg?w=940 940w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg?w=150 150w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg?w=300 300w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg?w=768 768w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg?w=1024 1024w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboasgardride.jpg 1200w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Åsgårdsreien (Åsgård’s Ride, The Wild Hunt) (1872), oil top top canvas, 83.5 x 165.5 cm, Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo. Wikimedia Commons.Åsgårdsreien (Åsgård’s Ride, The Wild Hunt) (1872) is drawn from a much more general European individual myth, i beg your pardon is specifically consisting of in the norse canon, of a group of ghostly huntsmen pass in wild pursuit. See the Wild Hunt to be the harbinger of major catastrophe, usually a battle with plenty of deaths. The riders could additionally snatch people up and abduct them, possibly to Valhalla, as Arbo mirrors in this powerful painting.

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" data-medium-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbodagr.jpg?w=240" data-large-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbodagr.jpg?w=817" class="size-full wp-image-10834" src="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbodagr.jpg?w=940" alt="arbodagr" srcset="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbodagr.jpg?w=940 940w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbodagr.jpg?w=120 120w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbodagr.jpg?w=240 240w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbodagr.jpg?w=768 768w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbodagr.jpg 958w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Dagr (1874), other details not known. Wikimedia Commons.Dagr (1874) shows the Norse divine being of the job (as opposed to night), the boy of the god Dellingr, and also the rider of the bright-maned horse Skinfaxi. With each other they bring day and also its irradiate to mankind, much in the way that Apollo’s sunlight chariot crossed the skies for the civilisations the the Mediterranean. Arbo again shows a classical depiction drawn from the norseman myths, v Dagr’s appropriate hand bearing a burn brand.

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" data-medium-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbonott.jpg?w=230" data-large-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbonott.jpg?w=750" class="size-full wp-image-10839" src="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbonott.jpg?w=940" alt="arbonott" srcset="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbonott.jpg 750w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbonott.jpg?w=115 115w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbonott.jpg?w=230 230w" sizes="(max-width: 750px) 100vw, 750px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Nótt riding Hrímfaxi (1887), other details not known. Wikimedia Commons.Nótt riding Hrímfaxi (1887) mirrors the dark side, the night. Nótt is given as the daughter the Nörvi; her 3rd marriage to be to Dellingr, the concern of which was Dagr. Interestingly, although Norse legend accounted for both day and also night with gods, Greek myth had a much less influential goddess of the night, Nyx (Roman Nox).

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" data-medium-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg?w=940" class="size-full wp-image-10836" src="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg?w=940" alt="arbohervorsdeath" srcset="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg?w=940 940w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg?w=150 150w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg?w=300 300w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg?w=768 768w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg?w=1024 1024w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohervorsdeath.jpg 1252w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Hervör’s death (1880), other details not known. Wikimedia Commons.Hervör’s Death (1880) reflects this shieldmaiden – that in countless respects resembles a Valkyrie in her dress – dying in one inheritance conflict. She was leading one army against an attack of a much larger military of Huns. The conflict occurred between she brothers, Hlöd and Angantýr, and it has actually been argued that the men displayed represent she foster father Ormar, and also brother Angantýr. This appears to it is in a sport on the account of the Poetic Edda, whereby she is mourned by those men in Árheimar quite than on the battlefield as shown.

Norwegian History

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" data-medium-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg?w=940" class="size-full wp-image-10841" src="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg?w=940" alt="arbotimespast" srcset="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg?w=940 940w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg?w=150 150w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg?w=300 300w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg?w=768 768w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg?w=1024 1024w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbotimespast.jpg 1252w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Times past (date no known), other details not known. Wikimedia Commons.Times Past (date not known) uses a very similar composition to that of Hervör’s Death to present the aftermath of one more Norse battle.

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" data-medium-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg?w=940" class="size-full wp-image-10835" src="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg?w=940" alt="arbohaakonthegood" srcset="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg?w=940 940w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg?w=150 150w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg?w=300 300w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg?w=768 768w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg?w=1024 1024w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbohaakonthegood.jpg 1250w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Håkon the an excellent and the farmers at the Sacrifice the Mære (1860), oil ~ above canvas, other details no known. Wikimedia Commons.Håkon the great and the farmers at the Sacrifice of Mære (1860) reflects King Håkon Haraldsson (c 920–961) winning end landowners and promoting the switch of the Norwegian world to Christianity. Together the younger kid of King Harald Fairhair, the was sent out for safety and security to the court of King Athelstan in England, wherein he was converted come Christianity. ~ above his father’s death, he went back to Norway with an expeditionary force, won the support of the landowners, and also assumed the throne in 631. Mære was among the most sacred pagan locations in Norway, whereby sacrifices were made.

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" data-medium-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg?w=940" class="size-full wp-image-10840" src="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg?w=940" alt="arbostolavstiklestad" srcset="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg?w=940 940w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg?w=150 150w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg?w=300 300w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg?w=768 768w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg?w=1024 1024w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbostolavstiklestad.jpg 1603w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Saint Olaf’s loss in the fight of Stiklestad (c 1859), watercolor, 31.5 x 47 cm, ar not known. Wikimedia Commons.Saint Olaf’s fall in the battle of Stiklestad (c 1859) is a watercolor created a print which appeared in the publication Billeder af Norges Historie (Pictures that Norway’s History), released by Christian Tønsberg in 1860. This scene mirrors Tore Hund, at the right, death King Olaf II that Norway with his spear, in the fight of Stiklestad in 1030. The King was later canonised. Olaf’s younger half-brother, Harald Sigurdsson, survived the fight to success Olaf, just to dice at the fight of Stamford bridge in 1066.

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" data-medium-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg?w=940" class="size-full wp-image-10833" src="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg?w=940" alt="arbobattlestamfordbridge" srcset="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg?w=940 940w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg?w=150 150w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg?w=300 300w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg?w=768 768w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg?w=1024 1024w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbobattlestamfordbridge.jpg 1504w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), The fight of Stamford bridge (1870), oil on canvas, dimensions not known, Nordnorsk Kunstmuseum, Tromsø, Norway. Wikimedia Commons.The battle of Stamford Bridge (1870) reflects a fight between Norwegian (‘Viking’) forces and also an English military in Yorkshire, during the fateful year in i beg your pardon England was got into by Normans. Return there were some smaller sized subsequent campaigns by vikings invaders, this is usually taken to note the finish of the ‘Viking Age’ in northern England.

The Norwegian force was led by King Harald Hardrada and also the English king’s brother, Tostig Godwinson. The English force was led through the King of England, Harold Godwinson, who died less than 3 weeks later at the battle of Hastings, and also so succumbed his throne come William, a Norman. On 25 September 1066, King Harald Hardrada was killed when he to be hit in the neck by an arrow, as shown in the centre of Arbo’s atmospheric painting. Tostig Godwinson and also most the the Norwegian army were likewise killed.

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However, when he got to Voss, in the mountains, he to be ambushed through locals. His tiny force the Birkebeiners dealt with off the attack, yet he had lost the element of surprise. He as such moved east, into the Voss mountains, in harsh winter conditions, as displayed here, before overwintering in Østerdal. His course is still well-known as Sverresgong. His competitor to the throne, Magnus Erlingsson, dropped at the fight of Fimreite in 1184, leaving Sverre’s authority unchallenged.

Miscellany

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" data-medium-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg?w=940" class="size-full wp-image-10838" src="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg?w=940" alt="arbolidengunvormerman" srcset="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg?w=940 940w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg?w=150 150w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg?w=300 300w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg?w=768 768w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg?w=1024 1024w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arbolidengunvormerman.jpg 1500w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), Liden Gunvor and also the Merman (1874-1880), oil on canvas, 26.5 x 37 cm, exclusive collection. Wikimedia Commons.Liden Gunvor and the Merman (1874-1880) is attracted from an opera The Fishers, by johannes Ewald and also Johann Hartmann, i m sorry was very first performed in Copenhagen in 1780. Liden Gunver or Gunvor is required to sea by an alluring but deceptive merman (the male equivalent of mermaid). Mermen were a usual feature in Greek, Finnish, Irish, and also Norse myths, but show up much less frequently in paints than mermaids.

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" data-medium-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg?w=300" data-large-file="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg?w=940" class="size-full wp-image-10844" src="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg?w=940" alt="arboviewoffrognerslottet" srcset="https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg?w=940 940w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg?w=150 150w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg?w=300 300w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg?w=768 768w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg?w=1024 1024w, https://londonchinatown.orgdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/arboviewoffrognerslottet.jpg 1605w" sizes="(max-width: 940px) 100vw, 940px" />Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892), watch of Frognerslot indigenous Skovveien (1890), oil top top cardboard, dimensions and also location no known. Wikimedia Commons.Arbo additionally painted in various other genres. In instance he appears to it is in hidebound come ‘Salon’ style, this an extremely painterly, perhaps fully Impressionist, see of a View of Frognerslot native Skovveien (1890) shows how comfortable he was sketching his native country.

Conclusions

Other arts – literature and also music in certain – room generally more international and cross-cultural in the narratives which lock use. In countless cases, readers and audiences favor a wide range of stories and also mythologies. Those which form the communication of narrative paintings have actually been attracted from a much narrower range of sources, notably Greek and Roman myths, the Bible, and some crucial events in european history.

The factors for this narrowness in sources may derive from the require for the viewer to currently be familiar with the story gift portrayed; the classics and also the holy bible are among the few which have actually been common throughout much the Europe. It is a shame that few painters have seen the chance to broaden their story base, and that other mythologies are seen as local, and also thus of small general appeal.

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I will consider this more in a future article looking in ~ depictions that the Finnish epic, the Kalevala.