Abdomen – The area of the body between the bottom the the ribs and also the optimal of the thighs.

You are watching: Saclike membrane surrounding the heart:

Abdominal aorta – The portion of the aorta in the abdomen.

Ablation – elimination or removal.

ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor – A medicine that lowers blood push by interfering through the break down of a protein-like substance affiliated in blood pressure regulation.

Acetylcholine – A kind of chemistry (called a neurotransmitter) the transmits messages among nerve cells and muscle cells.

Acquired heart disease – Heart condition that occurs after birth, generally from epidemic or through the buildup of fat deposits in the arteries the feed the love muscle.

Alveoli – Air bag in the lungs wherein oxygen and carbon dioxide room exchanged.

Amiodarone – A type of medicine (called one antiarrhythmic) supplied to treat irregular love rhythms such as atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. It functions by regulating nerve impulses in her heart. Amiodarone is mainly provided to patients who have not responded to other antiarrhythmic medicines.

Aneurysm – A sac-like protrusion indigenous a blood ship or the heart, result from a weakening of the vessel wall surface or love muscle.

Angina or angina pectoris – Chest pain that occurs when diseased blood ship restrict blood circulation to the heart.

Angiography – an x-ray technique in i beg your pardon dye is injected right into the chambers of your heart or the arteries that lead to your heart (the coronary arteries). The test lets doctors measure the blood flow and blood pressure in the love chambers and also see if the coronary arteries are blocked.

Angioplasty – A nonsurgical technique for dealing with diseased arteries by temporary inflating a small balloon inside an artery.

Angiotensin II receptor blocker  A medication that lowers blood push by impede the activity of angiotensin II, a chemistry in the human body that causes the blood vessels to tighten (constrict).

Annulus – The ring around a love valve whereby the valve leaflet merges with the love muscle.

Antiarrhythmics – Medicines used to treat patients who have irregular love rhythms.

Anticoagulant – any kind of medicine that keeps blood from clotting; a blood thinner.

Antihypertensive – any medicine or various other therapy the lowers blood pressure.

Antiplatelet therapy – medications that protect against blood cell (called platelets) from difficult together and forming a blood clot.

Aorta – The largest artery in the body and the key vessel to it is provided blood native the heart.

Aortic valve – The valve that regulates blood flow from the heart right into the aorta.

Aphasia – The inability to speak, write, or understand spoken or composed language due to the fact that of brain injury or disease.

Arrhythmia (or dysrhythmia) – an abnormal heartbeat.

Arrhythmogenic ideal ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – ARVD is a type of cardiomyopathy with no well-known cause. It appears to be a genetic condition (passed down v a family’s genes). ARVD reasons ventricular arrhythmias.

Arteriography – A test that is an unified with cardiac catheterization to visualize an artery or the arterial system after injection of a comparison dye.

Arterioles – Small, muscular branches the arteries. Once they contract, castle raise resistance come blood flow, and blood push in the arteries increases.

Artery – A vessel the carries oxygen-rich blood come the body.

Arteritis – Inflammation the the arteries.

Arteriosclerosis – A condition process, generally called “hardening that the arteries”, which consists of a selection of conditions that cause artery walls to thicken and lose elasticity.

Artificial heart – A manmade heart. Likewise called a total artificial heart (TAH).

Ascending aorta – The first portion the the aorta, arising from the heart’s left ventricle.

Aspirin  Acetylsalicylic acid; a medication used to relax pain, alleviate inflammation, and prevent blood clots.

Atherectomy – A nonsurgical technique for dealing with diseased arteries with a rotating an equipment that cut or shaves away material that is prevent or narrowing one artery.

Atherosclerosis – A an illness process the leads come the buildup the a waxy substance, referred to as plaque, inside blood vessels.

Atrium (right and also left) – The two upper or stop chambers that the love (together described as atria).

Atrial flutter – A type of arrhythmia in i beg your pardon the upper chambers the the heart (the atria) beat really fast, bring about the wall surfaces of the lower chambers (the ventricles) come beat inefficiently together well.

Atrial septal defect – see septal defect.

Atrial tachycardia – A form of arrhythmia that starts in the heart’s top chambers (the atria) and causes a really fast heart price of 160 to 200 to win a minute. A resting heart price is generally 60 to 100 win a minute.

Atrioventricular block – An interruption or disturbance the the electric signal between the heart’s upper 2 chambers (the atria) and lower 2 chambers (the ventricles).

Atrioventricular (AV) node – A team of cells in the love located between the upper 2 chambers (the atria) and the reduced two chambers (the ventricles) that regulates the electrical existing that passes with it come the ventricles.

Atrium – Either one of the heart’s two upper chambers.

Autologous – Relating come self. For example, autologous stem cells are those taken from the patient’s own body.

Autoregulation – once blood circulation to an organ stays the exact same although pressure in the artery that delivers blood to that body organ may have changed.

Bacteria – virus that have the right to lead come disease.

Bacterial endocarditis – A bacterial epidemic of the lining of the heart’s chambers (called the endocardium) or of the heart’s valves.

Balloon catheter  A lengthy tube-like device with a small balloon ~ above the finish that can be threaded with an artery. Provided in angioplasty or valvuloplasty.

Balloon valvuloplasty – A procedure to fix a love valve. A balloon-tipped catheter is threaded with an artery and into the heart. The balloon is inflated to open and separate any kind of narrowed or stiffened flaps (called leaflets) of a valve.

Beta-blocker – one antihypertensive medicine that limits the activity of epinephrine, a hormone that increases blood pressure.

Biopsy – The process by which a small sample of tissue is taken because that examination.

Blalock-Taussig procedure – A shunt between the subclavian and also pulmonary arteries used to increase the supply of oxygen-rich blood in “blue babies” (see below).

Blood clot – A jelly-like mass of blood tissue formed by clotting factors in the blood. Clots stop the circulation of blood indigenous an injury. Clots can also form inside an artery once the artery’s walls are damaged by atherosclerotic buildup, possibly resulting in a heart assault or stroke.

Blood pressure – The force or push exerted by the heart in pumping blood; the push of blood in the arteries.

Blue babies – Babies who have actually a blue tint to their skin (cyanosis) result from insufficient oxygen in the arterial blood. This problem often suggests a love defect.

Body mass table of contents (BMI) – A number that shows an raised risk that cardiovascular condition from a human being being overweight. BMI is calculated making use of a formula of load in kilograms separated by height in meter squared (BMI =W /H ). Click here for a BMI calculator.

Bradycardia – Abnormally slow heartbeat.

Bridge to transplant – use of mechanically circulatory assistance to store heart failure patients alive until a donor love becomes available.

Bruit – A sound make in the blood ship resulting indigenous turbulence, perhaps since of a buildup that plaque or damages to the vessels.

Bundle branch block – A problem in which parts of the heart’s conduction device are defective and unable to conduct the electric signal normally, leading to an irregular love rhythm (arrhythmia).

Bypass – surgical procedure that deserve to improve blood circulation to the heart (or other organs and also tissues) by providing a new route, or “bypass” roughly a section of clogged or hurt artery.

Calcium channel blocker (or calcium blocker) – A medicine that lowers blood push by regulation calcium-related electrical activity in the heart.

Capillaries – Microscopically small blood vessels between arteries and also veins that distribute oxygen-rich blood come the body’s tissues.

Cardiac – Pertaining come the heart.

Cardiac amyloidosis – A disorder caused by store of an abnormal protein (amyloid) in the heart tissue, which do it hard for the heart to job-related properly. Likewise called “stiff love syndrome.”

Cardiac arrest – The protecting against of the heartbeat, usually since of interference v the electrical signal (often linked with coronary heart disease).

Cardiac cachexia – A term for the muscle and also weight loss resulted in by serious heart disease. The is frequently related come the depression cardiac output connected with end-stage love failure, but it can also occur with severe coronary artery disease.

Cardiac catheterization – A procedure that entails inserting a fine, hole tube (catheter) into an artery, usually in the groin area, and also passing the tube into the heart. Regularly used in addition to angiography and also other procedures, cardiac catheterization has end up being a main tool for visualizing the heart and blood vessels and also diagnosing and treating heart disease.

Cardiac enzymes – facility substances qualified of speeding up specific biochemical processes in the heart muscle. Abnormal level of this enzymes signal heart attack.

Cardiac output – The quantity of blood the love pumps through the circulatory device in one minute.

Cardiologist – A medical professional who specializes in the examine of the heart and also its function in health and disease.

Cardiology – The research of the heart and also its duty in health and also disease.

Cardiomegaly – an enlarged heart. The is normally a sign of an underlying problem, such as high blood pressure, heart valve problems, or cardiomyopathy.

Cardiomyopathy – A condition of the love muscle the leads to generalized destruction of the muscle and its pump ability.

Cardiopulmonary bypass – The procedure by i m sorry a maker is provided to do the occupational of the heart and also lungs therefore the heart deserve to be stopped throughout surgery.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) – an emergency measure that have the right to maintain a person’s breathing and heartbeat. The human who performs CPR in reality helps the patient’s circulatory system by breathing right into the patient’s mouth to offer them oxygen and by giving chest compressions come circulate the patient’s blood. Hands-only CPR involves only chest compressions.

Cardiovascular (CV) – Pertaining come the heart and blood vessels that do up the circulatory system.

Cardiovascular an illness (CVD) – A general term introduce to conditions affecting the heart (cardio) and also blood vessels (vascular system). May additionally simply be called heart disease. Examples encompass coronary artery disease, valve disease, arrhythmia, peripheral vascular disease, congenital love defects, hypertension, and cardiomyopathy. Express to certain conditions for comprehensive explanations.

Cardioversion – A technique of using an electrical shock to the chest to convert an abnormal heartbeat come a typical rhythm.

Carotid artery – A major artery (right and also left) in the neck providing blood come the brain.

Cerebral embolism – A blood clot formed in one component of the body and also then carried by the bloodstream to the brain, where it block an artery.

Cerebral hemorrhage – Bleeding in ~ the brain resulting indigenous a ruptured blood vessel, aneurysm, or head injury.

Cerebral thrombosis – development of a blood gerean in an artery the supplies part of the brain.

Cerebrovascular – Pertaining come the blood ship of the brain.

Cerebrovascular accident – Also called cerebral vascular accident, apoplexy, or stroke. Blood supply to some part of the mind is slowed or stopped, causing injury to mind tissue.

Cerebrovascular occlusion – The prevent or close up door of a blood vessel in the brain.

Cholesterol – one oily substance the occurs naturally in the body, in pet fats and in dairy products products, and also that is transported in the blood. Limited amounts are crucial for the normal breakthrough of cell membranes. Excess quantities can bring about coronary artery disease.

Cineangiography – The method of using moving photos to display how a special dye passes v blood vessels, allowing doctors to diagnose illness of the heart and also blood vessels.

Circulatory system – Pertaining come circulation of blood with the heart and also blood vessels.

Claudication – A fatigue or pain in the arms and also legs led to by an insufficient supply that oxygen to the muscles, usually due to narrowed arteries or peripheral arterial disease (PAD).

Collateral circulation – Blood flow through small, adjacent vessels in an answer to blockage of a key blood vessel.

Commissurotomy -A procedure used to widen the opening of a love valve that has actually been small by scar tissue.

Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) – one x-ray an approach that offers a computer to produce cross-sectional images of the body.

Conduction system – one-of-a-kind muscle fibers that conduct electrical impulses throughout the love muscle.

Congenital – refers to problems existing at birth.

Congenital love defects – Malformation of the love or that its major blood vessels present at birth.

Congestive love failure – A problem in which the heart cannot pump all the blood returning to it, causing a backup of blood in the vessels and an build-up of liquid in the body’s tissues, consisting of the lungs.

Coronary arteries – two arteries arising from the aorta the arch under over the optimal of the heart and also divide right into branches. They provide blood to the love muscle.

Coronary artery anomaly (CAA) – A congenital defect in one or more of the coronary arteries the the heart.

Coronary artery bypass (CAB) – surgical rerouting that blood around a hurt vessel that provides blood come the heart. Done by grafting one of two people a item of vein indigenous the foot or a piece of the artery native under the breastbone.

Coronary artery an illness (CAD) – A narrowing of the arteries that supply blood to the heart. The problem results indigenous a buildup the plaque and greatly increases the threat of a heart attack.

Coronary love disease – an illness of the heart led to by a buildup of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries that can bring about angina pectoris or love attack.

Coronary occlusion – an obstruction of among the coronary arteries the hinders blood circulation to the love muscle.

Coronary thrombosis – formation of a gerean in one of the arteries transporting blood to the love muscle. Additionally called coronary occlusion.

Cryoablation – The remove of tissue using an instrument called a cold probe.

Cyanosis – Blueness the the skin brought about by a lack of oxygen in the blood.

Cyanotic love disease – A birth defect of the love that reasons oxygen-poor (blue) blood come circulate come the body without an initial passing v the lungs.

Death price (age-adjusted) – A fatality rate that has actually been standardized for age so different populations can be contrasted or the same populace can be contrasted over time.

Deep vein thrombosis – A blood clot in a deep vein in the calf (DVT).

Defibrillator – A device that helps gain back a regular heart rate by transporting an electrical shock.

Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) – A an illness in which the human body doesn’t develop or effectively use insulin. Insulin is required to convert sugar and also starch right into the energy used in day-to-day life.

Diastolic blood pressure – The shortest blood pressure measured in the arteries. The occurs when the love muscle is relaxed in between beats.

Digitalis – A medicine make from the leaves of the foxglove plant. Digitalis is provided to law congestive heart failure (CHF) and also heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias).

Dissecting aneurysm – A condition in i m sorry the layers of an artery different or space torn, resulting in blood to flow between the layers. Dissecting aneurysms usually happen in the aorta, the big vessel the carries blood indigenous the love to other parts of the body and can reason sudden death.

Diuretic – A medicine that lowers blood pressure by causing fluid loss. Diuretics encourage urine production.

Doppler ultrasound – A modern technology that uses sound tide to assess blood flow within the heart and also blood vessels and also to recognize leaking valves.

Dysarthria – A speech disorder resulting from muscular difficulties caused by damage to the mind or nervous system.

Dyspnea – Shortness of breath.

Echocardiography – A method of researching the heart’s framework and role by assessing sound waves bounced off the heart and also recorded by an electronic sensor put on the chest. A computer system processes the details to produce a one-, two- or three-dimensional moving photo that shows just how the heart and also heart valves are functioning.

Edema – Swelling led to by fluid build-up in human body tissues.

Ejection fraction – A measurement of the rate at i beg your pardon blood is pumped the end of a to fill ventricle. The normal rate is 50% or more.

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) – A check in i beg your pardon several electronic sensors are placed on the body to screen electrical task associated v the heartbeat.

Electroencephalogram (EEG) – A check that can detect and record the brain’s electrical activity. The check is done by pasting steel disks, dubbed electrodes, come the scalp.

Electrophysiological research (EPS) – A check that offers cardiac catheterization to study patients who have arrhythmias (abnormal heartbeats). One electrical present stimulates the love in an initiative to provoke an arrhythmia, identify its origin, and test the efficiency of medicines to treat the arrhythmias.

Embolus – also called embolism; a blood gerean that develops in a blood courage in one component of the body and travels to another part.

Endarterectomy – surgical removal that plaque deposits or blood clots in one artery.

Endocardium – The smooth membrane covering the inside of the heart. The innermost lining of the heart.

Endothelium – The smooth inside lining of countless body structures, consisting of the heart (endocardium) and also blood vessels.

Endocarditis – A bacterial epidemic of the heart’s inside lining (endothelium).

Enlarged heart – A state in i m sorry the heart is bigger than normal because of heredity, long-term heavy exercise, or diseases and also disorders such together obesity, high blood pressure, and also coronary artery disease.

Enzyme – A complex chemical qualified of speeding up particular biochemical processes in the body.

Epicardium – The thin membrane extending the outside surface of the heart muscle.

Estrogen – A female hormone developed by the ovaries that may safeguard premenopausal women against heart disease. Estrogen manufacturing stops after menopause.

Estrogen (or hormone) replacement therapy (ERT or HRT) – hormone that part women may take to counter the results of menopause.

Exercise stress and anxiety test – A typical test to help doctors assess blood circulation through coronary arteries in response to exercise, typically walking, at varied speeds and also for various lengths of time top top a treadmill. A tension test may incorporate use the electrocardiography, echocardiography, and also injected radioactive substances. Also called exercise test, tension test, nuclear tension test, or treadmill test.

Familial hypercholesterolemia – A genetic prejudice to dangerously high cholesterol levels.

Fatty acids (fats) – substances that occur in several creates in foods; various fatty acids have various effects on lipid profiles.

Fibrillation – Rapid, uncoordinated contractions the individual heart muscle fibers. The love chamber involved can’t contract all at once and pumps blood ineffectively, if in ~ all.

First-degree love block – Occurs once an electrical impulse indigenous the heart’s top chambers (the atria) is slowed together it moves with the atria and also atrioventricular (AV) node.

Flutter – The rapid, ineffective contractions of any type of heart chamber. A flutter is taken into consideration to be more coordinated than fibrillation.

Fusiform aneurysm – A tube-shaped aneurysm that reasons the artery to bulge outward. Entails the whole circumference (outside wall) that the artery.

Gated blood swimming pool scan – an x-ray evaluation of just how blood pools in the heart during rest and also exercise. The test provides a radioactive problem to tag red blood cells to permit doctors to calculation the heart’s overall capacity to pump and also its ability to compensate for one or an ext blocked arteries. Also called MUGA (multiple gated acquisition scan) or nuclear ventriculography.

Genetic testing – Blood exam that research a person’s genes to discover out if that or she is at hazard for certain diseases that are passed under through household members.

Guidewire  A small, bendable wire that is threaded with an artery; that helps physicians position a catheter so they have the right to perform angioplasty or stent procedures.

Heart help device – A mechanical device that is surgically implanted to ease the workload of the heart.

Heart attack – death of, or damages to, component of the love muscle caused by a absence of oxygen-rich blood flow to the heart.

Heart block – basic term for problems in which the electric impulse the activates the heart muscle cell is delayed or interrupted somewhere along its path.

Heart failure – watch congestive heart failure.

Heart-lung machine – an apparatus the oxygenates and pumps blood come the body throughout open love surgery; see cardiopulmonary bypass.

Heart murmur -An abnormal love sound led to by unstable blood flow. The sound may suggest that blood is flowing with a damaged or overworked love valve, the there may be a hole in one of the heart’s walls, or the there is a narrowing in one of the heart’s vessels. Part heart murmurs room a harmless kind called chaste heart murmurs.

Hematocrit – A measure up of the percentage of red blood cell in a offered amount (or volume) of totality blood.

Hemochromatosis – A condition in i beg your pardon too lot iron builds up in her body (iron overload). Too lot iron in the heart can reason irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) and heart failure. Too lot iron in the pancreas have the right to lead come diabetes.

Heredity – The hereditary transmission that a certain quality or trait from parent to child.

High blood pressure – A chronic boost in blood pressure above its normal range.

High thickness lipoprotein (HDL) – A component of cholesterol, HDL helps protect versus heart condition by cultivating cholesterol break down and removal indigenous the blood; hence, the nickname “good cholesterol.”

Holter monitor – A portable maker for recording heartbeats end a period of 24 hours or more.

Homocysteine – an amino acid (one the the structure blocks that renders up a protein) normally uncovered in tiny amounts in the blood. Too much homocysteine in the blood may promote the buildup of fatty plaque in the arteries. For part people, high homocysteine levels space genetic. Because that others, it is because they carry out not get enough of details B vitamin in their diet. (Common misspelling: homocystine)Hormones – chemistry released into the bloodstream that manage different features in the body, consisting of metabolism, growth, sex-related development, and also responses to anxiety or illness.

Hypertension – High blood pressure.

Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) – an overgrown love muscle that creates a bulge right into the ventricle and impedes blood flow.

Hypertrophy – Enlargement of tissues or organs since of raised workload.

Hyperventilation – fast breathing usually resulted in by anxiety. People feel like they can’t get enough air, therefore they breathe heavily and rapidly, which deserve to lead to numb or tingly arms and legs, or fainting.

Hypoglycemia – low levels the glucose (sugar) in the blood.

Hypokinesia – lessened muscle movement. In relationship to the heart, hypokinesia refers to decreased heart wall motion during each heartbeat. The is linked with cardiomyopathy, love failure, or heart attack. Additionally called hypokinesis.

Hypotension – Abnormally low blood pressure.

Hypoxia – much less than regular content of oxygen in the organs and tissues of the body.

Idiopathic – No well-known cause.

Immunosuppressants – any kind of medicine the suppresses the body’s immune system. These medications are supplied to minimize the chances that the body will reject a newly transplanted organ, such as a heart.

Impedance plethysmography – A noninvasive diagnostic test offered to evaluate blood flow through the leg.

Incompetent valve – likewise called insufficiency; a valve that is not working properly, leading to it to leak blood back in the wrong direction.

Infarct – The area of heart tissue permanently damaged by an inadequate supply of oxygen.

Infective endocarditis – An infection of the heart valves and the innermost lining that the love (the endocardium), resulted in by bacteria in the bloodstream.

Inferior vena cava – The huge vein return blood indigenous the legs and also abdomen to the heart.

Inotropes – Positive inotropes: any medicine that rises the toughness of the heart’s contraction. An unfavorable inotropes: any type of medicine that decreases the strength of the heart’s contraction and also the blood push in the vessels.

Internal mammary artery – A sturdy artery in the chest wall often offered as a bypass graft in coronary artery bypass surgery.

Intravascular echocardiography – A combination that echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. A miniature echo device on the tip of a catheter is used to generate images inside the heart and also blood vessels.

Introducer sheath – A catheter-like tube that is put inside a patient’s vessel throughout an interventional procedure to aid the physician with insertion and proper location of the really catheter.

Ischemia – decreased blood flow to one organ, usually as result of constriction or obstruction of an artery.

Ischemic love disease – also called coronary artery disease and coronary heart disease, this hatchet is applied to heart problems caused through narrowing of the coronary arteries, thereby bring about a lessened blood it is provided to the heart.

Ischemic stroke – A kind of stroke that is resulted in by blockage in a blood vessel.

Jugular veins – The veins that carry blood ago from the head to the heart.

Left ventricular assist machine (LVAD) – A mechanical maker that have the right to be placed outside the human body or implanted within the body. One LVAD go not change the heart—it “assists” or “helps” the pump oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle come the remainder of the body.

Lesion – one injury or wound. One atherosclerotic lesion is one injury to an artery due to hardening of the arteries.

Lipid – A fat substance the is insoluble (cannot be dissolved) in the blood.

Lipoprotein – A lipid surrounded by a protein; the protein renders the lipid soluble (can it is in dissolved) in the blood.

Low density lipoprotein (LDL) – The body’s main cholesterol-carrying molecule. High blood levels of LDL boost a person’s danger of heart condition by fostering cholesterol attachments and build-up in blood vessels; hence, the well-known nickname “bad cholesterol.”

Lumen – The hole area in ~ a tube, such as a blood vessel.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – A an approach that produces images of the heart and also other body structures by measure up the response of certain elements (such together hydrogen) in the body to a magnetic field. MRI can create detailed images of the heart and also its miscellaneous structures without the should inject a dye.

Maze surgery – A type of heart surgery that is supplied to act chronic atrial fibrillation by creating a operation “maze” of brand-new electrical pathways to let electrical impulses travel easily through the heart. Also called the Maze procedure.

Mitral stenosis – A narrowing of the mitral valve, which controls blood flow from the heart’s upper left chamber to its lower left chamber. May result from one inherited (congenital) problem or native rheumatic fever.

Mitral valve – The framework that controls blood flow between the heart’s left atrium (upper chamber) and left ventricle (lower chamber).

Mitral valve prolapse – A condition that occurs when the leaflets of the mitral valve in between the left atrium and left ventricle bulge right into the atrium and also permit backflow that blood. The condition can be associated with steady mitral regurgitation.

Mitral valve regurgitation – fail of the mitral valve come close properly, bring about blood come flow earlier into the heart’s top left room (the left atrium) instead of relocating forward into the lower left chamber (the left ventricle).

mm Hg – one abbreviation because that millimeters the mercury. Blood push is measure up in systems of mm Hg—how high the push inside the arteries would have the ability to raise a obelisk of mercury.

Monounsaturated fats – A form of fat discovered in many foods yet mainly in avocados and also in canola, olive, and peanut oils. Monounsaturated fat has tendency to reduced LDL cholesterol levels, and also some studies suggest that it might do for this reason without also lowering HDL cholesterol levels.

Mortality – The total number of deaths from a given an illness in a population during an interval that time, commonly a year.

Murmur – Noises superimposed on common heart sounds. Lock are brought about by congenital defects or damaged heart valves that execute not close effectively and permit blood to leak back into the chamber from i beg your pardon it has actually come.

Myocardial infarction – A love attack. The damage or death of an area of the love muscle (myocardium) result from a clogged blood it is provided to the area. The impacted tissue dies, injuring the heart. Symptoms encompass prolonged, intensive chest pain and also a decrease in blood pressure that often reasons shock.

Myocardial ischemia – Occurs once a component of the heart muscle does not receive enough oxygen.

Myocarditis – A rare condition in i m sorry the love muscle becomes inflamed together a an outcome of infection, toxic medicine poisoning, or illness like rheumatic fever, diphtheria, or tuberculosis.

Myocardium – The muscular wall surface of the heart. It contract to pump blood the end of the heart and then relaxes together the love refills with returning blood.

Myxomatous degeneration – A connective tissue disorder that reasons the love valve organization to weaken and also lose elasticity.

Nitroglycerin – A medicine that helps relax and dilate arteries; often used to treat cardiac chest pains (angina).

Necrosis – refers to the fatality of organization within a details area.

Noninvasive procedures – any diagnostic or treatment procedure in which no instrument enters the body.

NSTEMI – Non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. The milder kind of the 2 varieties of love attack, an NSTEMI does not develop an ST-segment key on one electrocardiogram. See likewise STEMI.

Obesity – The problem of being significantly overweight. The usually uses when a human being is 30% or an ext over ideal body weight. Obesity puts a strain on the heart and also can boost the risk of emerging high blood pressure and also diabetes.

Occluded artery – one artery in i m sorry the blood flow has been impaired by a blockage.

Open love surgery – An operation in which the chest and heart are opened up surgically if the bloodstream is diverted v a heart-lung (cardiopulmonary bypass) machine.

Pacemaker – A surgically implanted electronic machine that helps control the heartbeat.

Palpitation – an uncomfortable feeling within the chest caused by an rarely often rare heartbeat.

Pancreas – The organ behind the stomach that helps regulate blood sugar levels.

Pancreatitis – swelling (inflammation) that the pancreas.

Paralysis -Loss that the capability to relocate muscles and feel in part of the human body or the totality body. Paralysis may be short-lived or permanent.

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) – one occasional rapid heart price (150-250 beats every minute) the is brought about by occasions triggered in areas above the heart’s lower chambers (the ventricles). See additionally supraventricular tachycardia (SVT).

Patent ductus arteriosus – A congenital defect in which the opening between the aorta and also the pulmonary artery does no close ~ birth.

Patent foramen ovale – one opening between the left and also right atria (the top chambers) the the heart. Everyone has a PFO prior to birth, however in 1 out of every 3 or 4 people, the opening does not close naturally, together it should, after ~ birth.

Percutaneous coronary treatment (PCI)– any type of of the noninvasive measures usually carry out in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Angioplasty is an instance of a percutaneous coronary intervention. Also called a transcatheter intervention.

Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) – see angioplasty.

Pericarditis – Inflammation the the outer membrane surrounding the heart. When pericarditis occurs, the amount of fluid between the 2 layers that the pericardium increases. This increased liquid presses top top the heart and also restricts its pump action.

Pericardiocentesis – A diagnostic procedure that uses a needle to withdraw fluid from the sac or membrane surrounding the heart (pericardium).

Pericardium – The external fibrous sac the surrounds the heart.

Plaque – A deposit of fat (and other) substances in the within lining that the artery wall characteristic of atherosclerosis.

Platelets – among the three types of cells discovered in blood; they help in the clotting of blood.

Polyunsaturated fat – The significant fat in most vegetable oils, consisting of corn, safflower, sunflower, and soybean oils. This oils space liquid at room temperature. Polyunsaturated fat actually has tendency to reduced LDL cholesterol levels yet may alleviate HDL cholesterol levels together well.

Positron emission tomography (PET) – A check that offers information about the energy of certain elements in your body to present whether parts of the love muscle room alive and also working. A pet scan can additionally show if your heart is getting enough blood to store the muscle healthy.

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) – A disorder that reasons an enhanced heart rate when a human stands upright.

Premature ventricular contraction (PVC) – very early or extra heartbeat the happens when the heart’s lower chambers (the ventricles) contract also soon, out of sequence through the common heartbeat.

Prevalence – The total variety of cases of a given condition that exist in a populace at a specific time.

Pulmonary – refers to the lungs and respiratory system.

Pulmonary embolism – A problem in which a blood gerean that has actually formed elsewhere in the human body travels come the lungs.

Pulmonary valve – The love valve between the appropriate ventricle and the pulmonary artery that controls blood circulation from the heart into the lungs.

Pulmonary vein – The blood vessel that carries freshly oxygenated blood indigenous the lungs back to the left atrium that the heart.

Radial artery access – using the radial artery in the wrist together the entry suggest for the catheter in an angioplasty or stent procedure. Also called transradial access, the transradial approach, or transradial angioplasty.

Radionuclide imaging – A check in i beg your pardon a unauthorized radioactive problem is injected into the bloodstream to display information about blood circulation through the arteries. Damaged or dead love muscle can frequently be identified, as have the right to serious narrowing in an artery.

Radionuclide studies – any kind of of the diagnostic test in i m sorry a little amount of radioactive material is injected right into the bloodstream. The product makes it possible for a one-of-a-kind camera to take images of the heart.

Radionuclide ventriculography – A diagnostic test offered to determine the size and also shape the the heart’s pump chambers (the ventricles).

Regurgitation – Backward flow of blood with a defective heart valve.

Renal – pertains to the kidneys.

Restenosis– The re-closing or re-narrowing of one artery ~ an interventional procedure such as angioplasty or stent placement.

Revascularization – A procedure to restore blood circulation to the tissues. Coronary artery bypass surgical treatment is an example of a revascularization procedure.

Rheumatic fever – A disease, usually emerging in childhood, that might follow a streptococcal infection. Symptoms may incorporate fever, sore or swollen joints, skin rash, involuntary muscle twitching, and advance of nodules under the skin. If the infection requires the heart, scars may form on heart valves, and the heart’s outer lining may be damaged.

Rheumatic love disease – A an illness of the heart (mainly affect the love valves) caused by rheumatic fever.

Right ventricular assist maker (RVAD) – A mechanical maker that deserve to be placed external the human body or implanted within the body. One RVAD go not change the heart—it “assists” or “helps” it pump oxygen-poor blood native the best ventricle to the lungs.

Risk factor – An aspect or problem involving a specific hazard or danger. When referring come heart and blood vessels, a risk aspect is connected with an boosted chance of developing cardiovascular disease, including stroke.

Rubella – generally known together German measles.

Saccular aneurysm – A round aneurysm the bulges the end from one artery; requires only component of the one (outside wall) that the artery.

Sarcoidosis – one inflammatory disease that starts together tiny, grain-like lumps dubbed granulomas, which many often appear in your lungs or lymph nodes. The granulomas have the right to clump with each other and kind larger lumps that attack other organs. Sarcoidosis often affects your skin, eyes, or liver, but it can lead to heart problems, such as irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) or border cardiomyopathy.

Saturated fat – kind of fat discovered in foodstuffs of pet origin and also a few of vegetables origin; they are usually solid at room temperature. Numerous in meat and dairy products, saturated fat often tends to boost LDL cholesterol levels, and also it may raise the threat of certain types of cancer.

Second-degree love block – Impulses traveling through the heart’s top chambers (the atria) are delayed in the area in between the upper and also lower chambers (the AV node) and also fail to make the ventricles beat in ~ the appropriate moment.

Septal defect – A hole in the wall surface of the love separating the atria or in the wall of the heart separating the ventricles.

Septum – The muscular wall dividing a room on the left side of the love from the chamber on the right.

Sheath – A catheter-like tube the is inserted inside a patient’s vessel throughout an interventional procedure to assist the medical professional with insertion and also proper location of the really catheter. Likewise called one introducer sheath.

Shock – A condition in i m sorry body role is impaired because the volume of fluid circulating with the human body is inadequate to maintain normal metabolism. This might be caused by blood loss or by a disturbance in the duty of the circulatory system.

Shunt – A connector that permits blood come flow between two locations.

Sick sinus syndrome – The failure of the sinus node to control the heart’s rhythm.

Silent ischemia – illustration of cardiac ischemia that space not add by chest pain.

Sinus (SA) node – The “natural” pacemaker the the heart. The node is a team of committed cells in the peak of the right atrium i m sorry produces the electric impulses that take trip down to at some point reach the ventricular muscle, leading to the love to contract.

Sodium – A mineral crucial to life discovered in virtually all plant and also animal tissue. Table salt (sodium chloride) is nearly fifty percent sodium.

Sphygmomanometer – an instrument supplied to measure up blood pressure.

Stem cells – distinct cells in the human body that room able to transform right into other cells. That is possible for stem cells to transform right into heart cells, nerve cells, or various other cells the the body, possibly helping to boost the role of failing organs, including the heart.

STEMI – ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. The more severe form of the 2 types of heart attack. See likewise NSTEMI. A STEMI to produce a characteristic elevation in the ST segment on one electrocardiogram.

Stent – A maker made that expandable, metal mesh that is inserted (by using a balloon catheter) at the website of a narrowing artery. The stent is climate expanded and left in ar to store the artery open.

Stenosis – The narrowing or constriction of one opening, such together a blood courage or heart valve.

Stethoscope – an instrument because that listening come sounds within the body.

Stokes-Adams disease – additionally called third-degree love block; a condition that happens once the impulses that speed your heartbeat perform not reach the lower chambers of your heart (the ventricles). To comprise for this, the ventricles usage their very own “backup” pacemaker v its slow rate. This valuation can reason severe dizziness or fainting and can result in heart failure or death.

Streptococcal infection (“strep” infection) – an infection, usually in the throat, resulting from the presence of streptococcus bacteria.

Streptokinase – A clot-dissolving medicine supplied to act heart attack patients.

Sternum – The breastbone.

Stress – Bodily or mental tension result from physical, chemical, or emotional factors. Stress can refer to physical exertion and also mental anxiety.

Stroke – A suddenly disruption of blood flow to the brain, one of two people by a gerean or a leak in a blood vessel.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage – Bleeding native a blood courage on the surface of the brain into the space between the mind and the skull.

Subclavian arteries – Two significant arteries (right and left) that obtain blood indigenous the aortic arch and supply it come the arms.

Sudden death – death that occurs unexpectedly and instantaneously or shortly after the onset of symptoms. The most typical underlying factor for patients dying unexpectedly is cardiovascular disease, in details coronary love disease.

Superior vena cava – The large vein the returns blood from the head and arms to the heart.

Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) – A regular rapid heart price (150-250 beats every minute) the is led to by occasions triggered in areas above the heart’s reduced chambers (the ventricles); see also paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT).

Syncope – A temporary, insufficient blood it is provided to the brain which causes a loss of consciousness. Usually led to by a severe arrhythmia.

Systolic blood pressure – The highest possible blood press measured in the arteries. The occurs once the love contracts through each heartbeat.

Tachycardia – increased beating that the heart. Paroxysmal tachycardia is a particular kind of fast heart action, developing in seizures that may last native a few seconds to several days.

Tachypnea – rapid breathing.

Tamponade – additionally called cardiac tamponade. A condition in which the love is compressed or constricted because of a huge amount of liquid or blood in the an are between the heart muscle and also the sac that surrounds the heart (the pericardium).

Thallium-201 stress and anxiety test – one x-ray research that adheres to the path of radioactive potassium carried by the blood into heart muscle. Damaged or dead muscle deserve to be defined, as deserve to the degree of narrowing in an artery.

Third-degree love block – A severe condition additionally called Stokes-Adams disease; impulses native the heart’s upper chambers (the atria) are completely blocked from reaching the heart’s reduced chambers (the ventricles). To make up for this, the ventricles usage their very own “backup” pacemaker with its slow rate.

Thrombolysis – The break up the a blood clot.

Thrombosis – A blood gerean that forms inside the blood vessel or cavity the the heart.

Thrombolytic therapy – Intravenous or intra-arterial medicines the are used to dissolve blood coagulation in an artery.

Thrombus – A blood clot.

Thyroid – A gland located in the front of the neck, just listed below the voice box.

Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) – A clot-dissolving medicine the is used to treat heart attack and also stroke patients.

Trans fat – developed when hydrogen is required through an simple vegetable oil (hydrogenation), converting part polyunsaturates to monounsaturates, and some monounsaturates to saturates. Infectious diseases worldwide fat, favor saturated fat, tends to advanced LDL cholesterol levels, and, unlike saturated fat, infectious diseases worldwide fat likewise lowers HDL cholesterol levels.

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) – A minimally invasive procedure to repair a damaged or hurt aortic valve. A catheter is placed into one artery in the groin and threaded to the heart. A balloon in ~ the finish of the catheter, v a replacement valve folded approximately it, it is intended the new valve to take the ar of the old. Likewise called TAVR (Transcatheter aortic valve replacement).

Transcatheter intervention – any of the noninvasive measures usually carry out in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Angioplasty is an example of a transcatheter intervention. Likewise called a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Transesophageal echocardiography – A diagnostic test the analyzes sound waves bounced off the heart. The sound waves are sent out through a tube-like maker inserted in the mouth and passed down the stomach (food pipe), which ends near the heart. This technique is useful in studying patients who heart and also vessels, for miscellaneous reasons, are complicated to assess with standard echocardiography.

Transient ischemic assault (TIA) – A stroke-like occasion that lasts only because that a quick time and is caused by a temporarily blocked blood vessel.

Transplantation – replacing a failing organ with a healthy one indigenous a donor.

Tricuspid valve – The framework that controls blood flow from the heart’s upper right chamber (the ideal atrium) right into the reduced right room (the best ventricle).

Triglyceride – The most typical fatty substance found in the blood; typically stored as an energy source in fat tissue. High triglyceride levels may thicken the blood and also make a person much more susceptible to gerean formation. High triglyceride levels often tend to companion high cholesterol levels and also other risk components for heart disease, such together obesity.

Ultrasound – High-frequency sound vibrations, which cannot be heard by the human being ear, offered in clinical diagnosis.

Valve replacement – An operation to change a heart valve that is one of two people blocking typical blood circulation or causing blood come leak backward right into the love (regurgitation).

Valvuloplasty – Reshaping the a heart valve through surgical or catheter techniques.

Varicose vein – any type of vein the is abnormally dilated (widened).

Vascular – concerns the blood vessels.

Vasodilators – any kind of medicine that dilates (widens) the arteries.

Vasopressors – any medicine that elevates blood pressure.

Vein – any kind of one the a series of blood ship of the vascular device that tote blood from assorted parts that the body back to the heart, returning oxygen-poor blood to the heart.

Ventricle (right and left) – among the two lower chambers of the heart.

Ventricular Assist machine (VAD) – A mechanically pump that helps the ventricles pump blood, easing the workload of the heart in patients through heart failure.

Ventricular fibrillation – A problem in i m sorry the ventricles contract in a rapid, unsynchronized fashion. Once fibrillation occurs, the ventricles cannot pump blood throughout the body.

Ventricular tachycardia – an arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat) in the ventricle defined by a really fast heartbeat.

Vertigo – A emotion of dizziness or spinning.

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome – A condition in which an extra electric pathway connect the atria (two top chambers) and the ventricles (two lower chambers). It may reason a fast heartbeat.

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X-ray – form of radiation provided to create a photo of internal body structures on film.