Which tree reflects the best evolutionary distance between chytrids and ascomycetes?

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) IV


In the phylogenetic trees, numbers stand for species, and also the same varieties are presented in both trees. I beg your pardon two species are stood for as sister species in Tree 2 yet are not presented as sister species in Tree 1?

A) 1 and 2

B) 2 and 3

C) 3 and also 4

D) 4 and 5


The legless condition that is observed in several groups of extant reptiles is the result of ________.

You are watching: To apply parsimony to constructing a phylogenetic tree, _____.

A) their usual ancestor having been legless

B) a common adaptation come an arboreal (living in trees) lifestyle

C) several instances of the legless condition occurring independently of every other

D) individual lizards adapting come a fossorial (living in burrows) lifestyle during their lifetimes


The various taxonomic level (for example, phyla, genera, classes) the the hierarchical category system different from each various other on the communication of ________.

A) exactly how widely the organisms assigned to every are dispersed throughout the environment

B) your inclusiveness

C) the loved one genome size of the biology assigned to each

D) morphological characters that are applicable to all organisms


If biology A, B, and also C belong to the exact same class yet to different orders and also if biology C, D, and E belong come the same order however to different families, i m sorry of the complying with pairs the organisms would certainly be expected to present the greatest degree of structure homology?

A) A and D

B) B and D

C) B and also C

D) D and E


Carolus Linnaeus thought that varieties remained solved in the kind in i m sorry they had been created. Linnaeus would have actually been uncomfortable through ________.

A) a hierarchical group scheme

B) taxonomy

C) phylogenies

D) nested, progressively inclusive category of organisms


The best classification device is that which most very closely ________.

A) hold together organisms the possess similar morphologies

B) conforms come traditional, Linnaean taxonomic practices

C) reflects evolutionary history

D) reflects the an easy separation of prokaryotes native eukaryotes


Based top top this tree, i beg your pardon statement is correct?

A) The human lineage is a basal taxon.

B) Salamanders room a sister group to the team containing lizards, goats, and humans.

C) Salamanders room as carefully related to lizards regarding humans.

D) Goats are much more closely regarded salamanders 보다 to humans.


The complying with phylogeny shows six living species (a-f) and also five ancestral (now extinct) species (#1-5). If the phylogeny had been occurred on the communication of similarities in bone structure, i beg your pardon of the following predictions would certainly you make in regards to the structure of a certain enzyme?

A) The enzymes of species b and f are an extremely similar.

B) The enzyme of types b and c are an ext similar to ancestor #4 보다 to ancestor 2

C) The enzyme of types a and b space the very same as the of ancestor #2.

D) The enzyme of species c is very comparable to the of varieties d.


Some beetles and also flies have antler-like structures on your heads, much like male deer. The presence of antlers in beetle, fly, and also deer varieties with solid male-male compete is an instance of ________.

A) convergent evolution

B) similarity because of shared ancestry

C) homology

D) parsimony


The term convergent advancement is many applicable come which of the adhering to features?

A) the legless condition found in miscellaneous lineages that extant lizards

B) the five-digit condition of person hands and bat wings

C) the fur that consists Australian moles and North American moles

D) the bones of bat forelimbs and the skeleton of bird forelimbs


If, someday, an archaean cell is discovered whose rRNA sequence is more similar to that of people than the succession of mouse rRNA is to the of humans, the ideal explanation for this noticeable discrepancy would be ________.

A) homology

B) convergent evolution

C) typical ancestry

D) retro-evolution by humans


Which the the adhering to pairs room the best examples that homologous structures?

A) eyelessness in the Australian mole and eyelessness in the phibìc American mole

B) owl wing and also hornet wing

C) bat wing and bird wing

D) skeletal in the bat wing and bones in the person forelimb


Some molecular data ar the large panda in the bear family (Ursidae) however place the lesser panda in the raccoon family (Procyonidae). If the molecular data finest reflect the evolutionary background of these two groups, then the morphological similarity of this two species is many likely as result of ________.

A) the inheritance of got characteristics

B) sexual selection

C) possession the analogous (convergent) traits

D) possession of common primitive characters


The prominence of computers and also of computer software to modern-day systematics s is most closely linked to breakthroughs in ________.

A) irradiate microscopy

B) radiometric dating

C) fossil exploration techniques

D) molecule genetics


The typical ancestors of birds and also mammals were really early (stem) reptiles, which nearly certainly possessed three-chambered understanding (two atria, one ventricle). Birds and mammals, however, space alike in having actually four-chambered understanding (two atria, 2 ventricles). The four-chambered hearts of birds and mammals are finest described together ________.

A) structure homologies

B) vestiges

C) structural analogies

D) the an outcome of shared ancestry


Imagine the a phylogeny was arisen for a group of mammals based on bone structure. I m sorry of the complying with statements would be a reasonable prediction around a phylogeny for the same team of varieties based on similarities and differences in the structure of a particular enzyme?

A) The very same phylogeny would certainly be unlikely.

B) The very same phylogeny would certainly be predicted.

C) No prediction can be made.

D) The amino mountain sequence would be identical in all species.


According to the phylogenetic tree in the figure above, G. Intestinalis constitutes a ________ group.

A) analytic

B) monophyletic

C) polyphyletic

D) paraphyletic


By analyzing the phylogenetic tree diagrammed in the number above, what conclusion can you draw about the varieties G. Microti?

A) it evolved before G. Intestinalis.

B) it is much more closely pertained to G. Muris than to G. Intestinalis.

C) It have to not be labeled a types distinct native G. Intestinalis.

D) that is component of a monophyletic team that likewise includes G. Intestinalis.


Which of the following alters would a modern systematist it is in most most likely to do after finding out of the results of the rRNA analyses?

A) proceed to save subgroups A-D as members that the species G. Intestinalis

B) break the species G. Intestinalis into 4 separate species, A, B, C, and D

C) combine subgroup D and G. Microti into one species

D) integrate all the subgroups that G. Intestinalis (A-D) and also G. Microti to make one species


Refer come the figure. Which of the adhering to forms a monophyletic group?

A) A, B, C, D

B) C and D

C) D, E, and F

D) E, F, and G


Which of the adhering to trees, if any, depicts the same connection among types as displayed above?

(Graph)


Which of the adhering to would it is in most valuable in developing a phylogenetic tree that a taxon?

A) morphological data from fossil and living species

B) a knowledge of shade patterns in fossil and also living species

C) a understanding of mutation prices in modern species

D) morphological data indigenous fossil species


Your professor wants you to build a phylogenetic tree the orchids. She gives you organization from 7 orchid varieties and one lily. What is the most likely reason she provided you the lily?

A) to offer as one outgroup

B) to check out if the lily is a cryptic orchid species

C) to see if the lily and the orchids present all the exact same shared derived characters

D) to demonstrate likely homoplasies


Which that the complying with statements ideal describes the reason for applying the principle of maximum parsimony in constructing phylogenetic trees?

A) Parsimony allows the researcher come "root" the tree.

B) Similarity due to typical ancestry should be much more common than similarity because of convergent evolution.

C) The molecule clock validates the principle of parsimony.

D) The outgroup roots the tree, permitting the rule of parsimony to it is in applied.


Applying the principle of parsimony come the properties "ability come fly," which of the two phylogenetic tree is better?

A) Tree 1

B) Tree 2

C) Both trees are equally parsimonious.

D) due to the fact that the tree show various evolutionary relationships, girlfriend cannot determine which is more parsimonious.


Which the the complying with statements is precise with regard come a phylogeny, as represented by a phylogenetic tree?

A) Descendant groups (branches) native the same node likely share countless derived characters.

B) A monophyletic team can it is in properly based on convergent features.

C) The ancestral group frequently has all the derived personalities of the descendant species.

D) Shared ancestral characters are wonderful traits to usage in emerging a phylogeny.


Given that phylogenies are based upon shared derived characteristics, which of the following traits is useful in generating a phylogeny of types W, X, Y, and also Z?

A) properties 1

B) properties 2

C) characteristics 3

D) properties 1, 2, and also 3


Which of the complying with is (are) problematic as soon as the goal is to build phylogenies that accurately reflect evolution history?

A) polyphyletic taxa

B) paraphyletic taxa

C) monophyletic taxa

D) polyphyletic taxa and also paraphyletic taxa


Phylogenetic trees constructed from evidence from molecular systematics are based on similarities in ________.

A) morphology

B) the sample of embryological development

C) biochemical pathways

D) mutations come homologous genes


There is some evidence that reptiles called cynodonts might have had actually whisker-like hairs around their mouths. If true, then hair is a mutual ________.

A) acquired character of mammals, also if cynodonts proceed to be classified together reptiles

B) obtained character of every vertebrates and also not of the mammal clade

C) ancestral character of the all vertebrates, yet only if cynodonts room reclassified as mammals

D) acquired character of mammals, but only if cynodonts are reclassified as mammals


Which extinct species should it is in the finest candidate to offer as the outgroup for the clade whose usual ancestor occurs at position 2 in the figure?

A) A

B) B

C) C

D) E


If the figure above is an accurate depiction the relatedness, then which that the complying with should be precise statement?

A) The whole tree is based upon minimum parsimony.

B) If all types depicted here make up a taxon, this taxon is paraphyletic.

C) The last common ancestor of species B and C occurred more recently 보다 the last typical ancestor of species D and also E.

D) types A is the straight ancestor of both varieties B and types C.


If the number is specific depiction of relatedness, then which that the complying with should be precise statement?

A) If all species depicted here comprise a taxon, this taxon is monophyletic.

B) The types present at position 4 is ancestral to species E, but not species D.

C) species C is more closely associated to varieties B than D is come B

D) The varieties present at place 3 is ancestral to C, D, and also E.


Humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans are members of a clade dubbed the good apes, which shared a usual ancestor about 15 million year ago. Gibbons and siamangs comprise a clade called the lesser apes. Tree-branch lengths show elapsed time.

Assuming chimps and gorillas space humans" the next relatives, removing people from the an excellent ape clade and also placing castle in a different clade has actually the impact of do the phylogenetic tree the the good apes ________.

A) polyphyletic

B) paraphyletic

C) monophyletic

D) right into a brand-new order


The inquiry refers come the complying with table, which compares the percent sequence homology of four various parts (two introns and also two exons) the a gene the is discovered in five various eukaryotic species. Each component is numbered to show its street from the promoter (for example, Intron i is the one closest come the promoter). The data report for types A were acquired by comparing DNA indigenous one member of species A to another member of types A.

Based ~ above the tabular data, and also assuming that time breakthroughs vertically, i m sorry phylogenetic tree is the most most likely depiction of the evolutionary relationships amongst these 5 species?


Regarding this sequence homology data, the principle of preferably parsimony would be applicable in ________.

A) differentiating introns from exons

B) determining level of succession homology

C) selecting proper genes for comparison among species

D) inferring evolutionary relatedness indigenous the number of sequence differences


In a comparison of birds and mammals, having 4 limbs is ________.

A) a shared ancestral character

B) a shared derived character

C) a character beneficial for separating birds native mammals

D) an example of analogy fairly than homology


To apply the principle of best parsimony to construction of a phylogenetic tree, ________.

A) select the tree that assumes every evolutionary transforms are same probable

B) choose the tree in i m sorry the branch points are based on as many shared derived personalities as possible

C) select the tree that represents the fewest evolution changes, one of two people in DNA order or morphology

D) select the tree with the fewest branch points


If friend were using cladistics to develop a phylogenetic tree that cats, which of the adhering to would it is in the best outgroup?

A) lion

B) domestic cat

C) wolf


The phylogenetic tree displayed ________.

A) depicts uncertainty around whether the bryophytes or the vascular plants progressed first

B) depicts an evolutionary hypothesis

C) includes evolution of convergent characteristics

D) indicates that seeds space a shared genealogical character of all vascular plants


In figure 26.4, which similarly inclusive taxon is stood for as descending native the same typical ancestor together Canidae?

A) Felidae

B) Mustelidae

C) Carnivora

D) Lutra


Three living species X, Y, and also Z share a common ancestor T, as do extinct varieties U and also V. A group that is composed of types T, X, Y, and Z (but not U or V) provides up

A) a monophyletic taxon.

B) one ingroup, with types U together the outgroup.

C) a paraphyletic group.

D) a polyphyletic group.


Based ~ above the tree below, i beg your pardon statement is no correct?

A) Goats and also humans form a sister group.

B) Salamanders are a sister team to the team containing lizards, goats, and humans.

C) Salamanders are as very closely related come goats regarding humans.

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D) Lizards are much more closely related to salamanders than to humans.


The family member lengths of the frog and mouse branches in the phylogenetic tree in figure 26.13 suggest that