From the AIM"En route Low Altitude Charts - carry out aeronautical info for en path instrument navigation (IFR) in the low altitude stratum. Information has the portrayal that airways, boundaries of regulated airspace, position identification and also frequencies that radio aids, selected airports, minimum en route and also minimum obstruction clearance altitudes, airway distances, report points, limited areas, and also related data."Low Altitude En route Charts are supplied for IFR navigating at altitudes listed below 18,000 feet.Federal AirwaysThe VOR and also L/MF (nondirectional radio beacons) Airway System consists of prayer designated indigenous 1,200 feet above the surface ar (or in some instances higher) up to but not including 18,000 feet MSL. This airways are generally called "Victor Airways" and also are portrayed on IFR Enroute low Altitude Charts.The jet path system is composed of jet routes established from 18,000 feet MSL come FL 450 inclusive. These paths are portrayed on High Altitude Charts.Published RNAV routes, including Q-Routes and T-Routes, deserve to be trip planned for use by aircraft with RNAV capability, subject to any limitations or requirements listed on en path charts, in applicable Advisory Circulars, or through NOTAM. RNAV paths are shown in blue top top aeronautical charts and also are established by the letter “Q” or “T” adhered to by the airway number.IFR En path AltitudesMinimum sector Altitude (MSA) is the shortest altitude i m sorry will administer a minimum clearance of 1000 feet above all obstructions situated in the area had within a ar of a circle focused on a radio navigating aid.

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Minimum En-route Altitude (MEA) is the altitude for an en course segment that offers adequate reception of relevant navigation facilities and ATC interactions while adhering to the airspace structure and provides the required obstacle clearance. The MEA will assure: • suitable reception of navigation aids • two-way communication with ATC • safe clearance or margin indigenous obstacles • adherence to ATC or regional proceduresMinimum problem Clearance Altitude (MOCA) is the minimum altitude because that a defined segment that offers the required obstacle clearance. That is related to a details MEA. The MOCA is determined and also published for each segment the the route. Charts will provide the appropriate horizontal and vertical separation in ~ those areas where the presence of obstacles can be a variable for the security of flights.The MOCA will specify minimum vertical separation the 1000 feet indigenous the ground or landmarks. The MOCA might put one aircraft below ATC radar coverage (MVA) and/or listed below the minimum reception altitude (MRA). The MOCA assures VOR reception within a 22 NM range.The Minimum crossing Altitude (MCA) is the lowest altitude in ~ which a navigational fix might be crossed when entering or proceeding along an airway the will allow an aircraft to clear every obstacles while moving out a regular climb to the compelled minimum en route IFR altitude (MEA) of the airway in question past the fix. The pilot have to climb to the MCA prior to reaching the intersection; in that method the MCA will certainly not be violated.The Minimum agree Altitude (MRA) is the lowest altitude on an airway segment where an aircraft have the right to be assured the receiving signals from ground-based navigational aids. Typically, the higher the distance in between navigation aids, the higher the MRA.The Minimum Vectoring Altitude (MVA) is the lowest altitude to which a radar controller may concern aircraft altitude clearances during vectoring/direct routing except if otherwise authorized because that radar approaches, departures and missed approaches.The Minimum holding Altitude (MHA) is the lowest altitude prescribed because that a stop pattern the assures navigational signal coverage, communications, and meets obstacle clearance requirements. Pilots must be aware of the MHA when entering or starting a stop procedure at every times in bespeak to fulfill the security requirements.§ 91.177 Minimum Altitudes for IFR Operations.

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(a)Operation of aircraft at minimum altitudes. Except when necessary for takeoff or landing, or unless otherwise authorized by the FAA, no human being may run an aircraft under IFR listed below -(1) The applicable minimum altitudes prescribed in components 95 and also 97 of this chapter. However, if both a MEA and also a MOCA are prescribed because that a specific route or course segment, a person may run an aircraft below the MEA down to, however not below, the MOCA, provided the applicable navigation signals room available. For aircraft making use of VOR because that navigation, this uses only as soon as the aircraft is in ~ 22 nautical mile of the VOR (based on the reasonable estimate by the pilot operating the plane of the distance); or(2) If no applicable minimum altitude is prescribed in components 95 and 97 the this chapter, then -(i) In the situation of operations end an area designated as a like the mountain area in component 95 that this chapter, an altitude that 2,000 feet above the greatest obstacle within a horizontal distance of 4 nautical mile from the food to it is in flown; or(ii) In any kind of other case, an altitude the 1,000 feet over the greatest obstacle in ~ a horizontal street of 4 nautical miles from the course to it is in flown.(b)Climb. Climb to a greater minimum IFR altitude shall begin automatically after happen the suggest beyond which that minimum altitude applies, except that as soon as ground obstructions intervene, the allude beyond i m sorry that greater minimum altitude applies shall be crossed at or above the applicable MCA.Changeover clues (COP)The COP is a suggest along the course or airway segment between two nearby VORs wherein changeover in navigation guidance have to occur. In ~ this point, the pilot should change the navigating receiver frequency native the station behind the aircraft to the station ahead. The COP is usually located midway in between the navigation infrastructure for straight route segments, or in ~ the intersection of radials or courses creating a dogleg in the case of dogleg route segments. When the COP is NOT situated at the midway point, aeronautical charts will depict the COP location and also give the mileage to the radio aids. The COP price is a squared zig-zag with numbers indicating purpose of use on the top and also bottom.COPs are established for the purpose of staying clear of loss of navigating guidance, to protect against frequency interference from other facilities, and to prevent use of various facilities by different aircraft in the same airspace. Pilots are urged to observe COPs to the fullest extent.Test inquiries will ask whereby the COP exists on a provided airway segment. If over there is a squared zig-zag, that shows the COP and mileage. If no squared zig-zag exists on the segment, usage the halfway allude as the COP.VFR on TopPilots top top IFR flight plans operating in VFR weather conditions may request VFR-on-top in lieu of an assigned altitude. This patent them to select an altitude or flight level that their an option (subject to any ATC restrictions). Pilots desiring come climb with a cloud, haze, smoke, or various other meteorological formation and then either cancel your IFR flight plan or run VFR-on-top might request a climb to VFR-on-top. The ATC authorization contains a top report (or a statement the no top report is available) and a inquiry to report upon getting to VFR-on-top. Additionally, the ATC authorization might contain a clearance limit, routing, and also an alternate clearance if VFR-on-top is not reached by a specified altitude.A pilot on an IFR trip plan, operation in VFR conditions, may request come climb/descend in VFR conditions. When operating in VFR problems with one ATC authorization come “maintain VFR-on-top/maintain VFR conditions,” pilots top top IFR trip plans must:1. Fly in ~ the appropriate VFR altitude as prescribed in 14 CFR part 91.2. Comply through the VFR visibility and also distance-from cloud criteria in 14 CFR component 91.3. Comply with IFR applicable to this flight.Pilots operation on a VFR-on-top clearance have to advise ATC before any kind of altitude adjust to for sure the exchange of precise traffic information.VFR-on-top should not be puzzled with "VFR end the top". VFR-on-top is one IFR clearance. VFR over the top is a VFR operation.IFR short Level Enroute ChartsIFR Enroute low Altitude Charts provide aeronautical info for navigating under instrument flight rules below 18,000 feet MSL. Info in these four-color charts include:• Air website traffic Services• Airports that have an Instrument strategy Procedure or a minimum 3000" hard surface runway• Airways/Route Data• seafaring Altitudes• Fixes/ATC report Points• boundaries of regulated airspace• armed forces Training Routes• Off route Obstruction Clearance Altitudes (OROCA)• Radio aids come navigation• RNAV Routes• special Use Airspace Areas• Tabulations (MTRs, SUAs, MOAs, airplane data)When tracking one airway in between two VORs, there will be a point where you readjust navigation native the radial behind you come the bearing in former of you. Keep in mind that VOR infrastructure may broadcast radials that are not exactly in line v those the other nearby facilities. Thus, one airway can be marked by the 045 radial from one station and the 223 bearing to (the reciprocal of 045 is 225) the the next station. Clear changeover point out (COP) might be marked on an airway v a zig-zag price (see Legend below). If no such symbol appears, change over come the next station at the halfway point, in regards to nautical miles.
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