The team 16 elements, also known together the chalcogens have 6 valence electrons, and hence they can accomplish noble gas configuration either by acquiring 2 electron or by sharing 2 electrons i.e., by creating M2- ions, or creating two covalent bonds. The oxidation state of aspects is defined as the variety of electrons obtained or shed to type a bond and also its authorize is the point out of ionic fee on the element. Oxygen is the many electronegative facet after fluorine. The distinction in electronegativity between metals and oxygen is generally an extremely high. We recognize that ionic shortcut is created when the difference in electronegativity of any kind of two facets is an extremely high. Thus, metals and oxygen incorporate to form a metal oxide with oxygen attaining O2- form, therefore the oxidation state that oxygen is mainly (-II).

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Electronegativity that chalcogens decreases under the team in the periodic table. Other chalcogen aspects like sulphur, selenium, and tellurium react through a more electronegative facet of team 1, 2 and lanthanides i.e., the uppermost aspects of team 1, 2 and lanthanides to form sulphides, selenides, and tellurides. These compounds are the many stable compounds formed by these elements. Compounds formed above can it is in denoted as S2-, Se2-, and also Te2-. The electronegativity difference between the compounds (sulphides, selenides, and also tellurides) shows that they are on the borderline that 50% ionic and also 50% covalent personalities as in the case of PCl5. Phosphorus pentachloride is occasionally covalent in the solid state yet is ionic in the aqueous state.

The chalcogen team can additionally share their 2 electrons with one more element to form two covalent bonds for example \(H_2O, F_2O, Cl_2O, H_2S ~and ~SCl_2\). In the given examples the chalcogen facets have the least electronegativity. As we deserve to see in the instance of \(SCl_2\) (the electronegativity of chlorine = 3.5 and also sulphur =2.5) and also the oxidation state the sulphur is (+II).

Electronic configuration and also Oxidation claims (Unstable claims are created in parentheses)
ElementConfigurationOxidation States
O2s2 2p4-II, (-I)
S3s2 3p4-II, (II), IV, VI
Se3d10 4s2 4p4(-II), II, IV, VI
Te4d10 5s2 5p4II, IV, VI
Po4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4II, IV

Oxygen and sulphur have only s and also p electrons, whereas the Se, Te, and Po have d electrons. The pour it until it is full of d shell provides the atom smaller and also hence the electrons are tightly packed. Because of this reason, Se cannot gain the highest oxidation state the (+VI). Whenever, S is oxidized through \(HNO_3\) to type \(H_2SO_4\) (S +VI) yet Se is oxidized by \( HNO_3\) to type \(H_2SeO_3\) (Se +IV). Some facets of group 16 choose S, Se, and also Te can attain oxidation states of IV and VI, i m sorry is much more stable 보다 the +II state. This is just the quick layout the oxidation states of team 16 elements.

See more: File: World Map 1980 - File:World Map 1980 Final

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