Chapter2 FRATRICIDE- CAUSE and EFFECTResponsibilityfor reducing the danger of fratricide falls squarely ~ above the shoulders of thetask force commander. Yet, all leaders of the maneuver task force and also leadersof supporting arms must help him to achieve the mission there is no friendlyfire losses. The must make use of all training, material, and technical alternativesat his disposal. He should not be fear of fratricide, however strive come minimizeit v tough, realistic, an unified arms training wherein each soldier andunit achieves the set standard. Allleaders must know the standard and relentlessly train to that standard. Trainingproperly allows us to make mistakes, exactly them and, thus, mitigate their likelihoodin combat. Avoiding fratricide is crucial training standard and an essential toeffective mission accomplishment. Understanding where ours soldiers are, and also wherewe desire the fire, will help keep ours soldiers alive to death the enemy. Wemust prevent at all prices the reluctance come employ, integrate, and synchronizeall the battlefield operating solution at the crucial time and also place.Wewill now discuss causes of fratricide in regards to the adhering to two kinds ofcapabilities introduced by the TRADOC-AMC Task pressure on Combat Identification.They are:SITUATIONALAWARENESS: Thereal-time accurate knowledge of one"s own place (and orientation), together wellas the places of friendly, enemy, neutral, and noncombatants. This includesawareness the the METT-T problems that affect the operation. POSITIVEIDENTIFICATION: Theimmediate, accurate, and dependable capability to discriminate through-sight betweenfriends and foe. Optimally this capacity extends come maximum engagement and acquisitionrange, and also neither boosts vulnerability, no one decreases device performance."Lackof optimistic target identification and the inability to maintain situationalawareness in combat atmospheres are the major contributors to fratricide.If we understand where we are and where our friends space in relation to us, we canreduce the probability of fratricide. If, in addition, we can identify betweenfriend, neutral, and enemy, we have the right to reduce the probability also more." -- TRADOC-AMCCombat identification Interim ReportPRIMARYCAUSES of FRATRICIDESITUATIONALAWARENESS:InadequateFire and Maneuver Control:Unitsmay fail come disseminate (via troop-leading procedures and rehearsals) the minimumnecessary maneuver and also fire support regulate measures to name: coordinates activitieson the ground. Units fail come tie manage measures to recognizable terrain andevents or, where necessary, produce a recognizable feature. Improper usage orinconsistent understanding can an in similar way make regulate measures ineffective.As the fight develops, the setup cannot deal with obvious foe moves together theyoccur and also synchronization fails. DirectFire control Failure: Defensiveand particularly offensive fire regulate plans might not be arisen or might failin execution. Same units carry out not point out target recommendation points, engagementareas, and priorities. Some may designate, yet fail come adhere come them. Weaponspositioning can be poor, and fire self-control can breakdown upon contact. LandNavigation Failures:Nevereasy, navigating is often complex by challenging terrain or weather and visibility,navigation problems can cause units to stray out of sector, report dorn locations,become disoriented, or, rental fire assistance weapons from wrong locations. Asa result, trusted units may collide unexpectedly or communicate each various other erroneously.Reporting,Crosstalk and also Battle Tracking Failures: Commanders,leaders and also their CPs at every levels regularly do not generate timely, accurate,and complete reports or track subordinates together locations and the tactical situationchange. Commanders are, therefore, can not to preserve situational awareness.This distorts the picture at each level and also permits the erroneous clearanceof assistance forces and violations of risk close. KnownBattlefield Hazards: Unexplodedordnance, unmarked and unrecorded minefields, FASCAM, paris debris native discardingSABOTs or illumination rounds, and also booby trap litter the battlefield. Failureto mark, record, remove, or otherwise anticipate these risks leads come casualties.POSITIVEIDENTIFICATION:CombatIdentification Failures:Vehiclecommanders, gunners and attack pilots differentiate friendly and also enemy thermaland optical signatures near the maximum selection of their tools systems. However,our techniques lead united state to exploit our variety advantage over the enemy. During limitedvisibility, or in restricted terrain, systems in proximity can mistake each otherfor the enemy due to brief engagement windows and decision time. We perform nothave a means to determine friend or foe, other than visual acknowledgment of ourforces and the enemy"s. Once the enemy and also our Allies space equipped similarly,and when the enemy used U.S. Equipment, the difficulty is compounded. OTHER:WeaponsErrors: Lapsesin unit and also individual discipline or violate of the rule of Engagementallow errors that room not just accidents. Instances are out-of-sector engagements,unauthorized discharges, mistakes v explosives and hand grenades, chargeerrors, incorrect pistol data and similar incidents.Althoughevery occurrence of fratricide is a duty of countless contributingfactorsorpreconditions(seecomprehensive perform at AppendixA),the specific causes as we have debated are relatively few. Contributing factors,such as anxiety, confusion, negative weather, and inadequate preparation, might greatlyincrease the chances of a navigating error that reasons fratricide. Quick planningtime, failure to rehearse, and also leader fatigue, are various other preconditions whichmay result in a fatally flawed straight fire plan or lack of ideal maneuvercontrol measures. Everymission will certainly involve a unique mix of this factors and also their relative importancewill vary.Inother cases, favorable conditions will compensate because that a fratricide contributingfactor (e.g., shining moonlight mitigates navigation and also control challenges)or 2 otherwise minor conditions may incorporate to considerably increase risk (inexperiencedflank platoon leader establishes commo problems). Thus,these contributing components are a an important dimension of reality training conditions.PRIMARYFRATRICIDE CONTRIBUTING FACTORS:Mission(& C2)HighVehicle or Wpns density Cdr"sIntent unclear or complicated PoorFlank Coordination CrosstalkLacking NoHabitual RelationshipsEnemyWeakIntelligence or Recon IntermingledWith FriendlyTerrainObscurationor bad Visibility ExtremeEngagement ranges NavigationDifficulty Absenceof Recognizable FeaturesTroops& EquipmentHighWeapons Lethality UnseasonedLdrs or Troops PoorFire regulate SOPs IncompleteROE Anxietyor confusion Failureto Adhere to SOPsTimeSoldierand Leader fatigue InadequateRehearsals ShortPlanning TimeLEADTO THESE primary FRATRICIDE CAUSES:AFatal navigating Error Lossof Fire regulate -- direct & Indirect AReporting, battle Tracking or Clearance the Fires Error IneffectiveManeuver control Casualtiesin trusted Minefields CombatIdentification Errors WeaponsErrors or failures in self-control EFFECTSOF FRATRICIDETheeffects of fratricide can be devastating and spread deeply in ~ a unit. Fratricideincreases the hazard of unacceptable losses and the danger of mission failure.Fratricide seriously affects the unit"s capacity to survive and also function. Observationsof units experiencing fratricide include: Hesitationto conduct minimal visibility operations. Lossof confidence in the unit"s leadership. Increaseof leader self-doubt. Hesitationto use supporting combat systems. Oversupervisionof units. Lossof initiative. Lossof aggressiveness throughout fire and also maneuver. Disruptedoperations, Needlessloss of combat power. Generaldegradation of cohesion and morale. FRATRICIDERISK assessment IN PERSPECTIVEThetactically competent and savvy leader must think about the risk of fratricide,take proper common sense procedures to alleviate the risk, and also integrate thosemeasures into his mission planning and execution. Combat is inherently risky,but the wise leader take away reasonable actions to minimize the risk. Great commandersare mindful not to place undue emphasis on hazard avoidance and thus increasetimidity and hesitance during battle.


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We fight and win by focusing overwhelmingcombat strength on the opponent from three or four different systems, thus, givinghim several different ways to die all in ~ once. Sensitivityto fratricide danger reduction need to not deter this emphasis on decisive, integrated,combined arms engagements.Tableof ContentsVignette:Operation urgent FURY: wait SupportVignette:Operation DESERT STORM: actions in a activity to call