Alcoforado FAG1*1 Consultant, CXA- Arquitectura E Engenharia Ltda., Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

This manuscript intends to existing the international experience in control and also management that floods, in order to identify the ideal practices. In this study, the reasons and after-effects of the floods, the actions used to regulate them, the procedures embraced to guarantee the safety and security of the post-flood cleaning will certainly be presented and the measures to attend to future floods will certainly be outlined. This article is intended, fundamentally, to market its readers the knowledge on the finest practices the control and also management of floods about the world.

You are watching: Which of the following methods of flood control is the cheapest and most effective?


Floods; flood control; flood management


The culture and the economic climate of any country experience in plenty of ways after ~ a flood through the loss of lives, vegetation, properties and also infrastructure, which way there will certainly be fewer human being on the labor force, much less agriculture obtainable for locals and also for exporting and also less enterprise to add to the country’s economic climate development. There will certainly be fixed displacement that people, numerous of whom may be left homeless and also jobless. In stimulate to fill this gap, the federal government will have to spend at a higher level. The country may have to look for international help to supply food and also materials come clean and also rebuild that is infrastructure. If some countries will support voluntarily, other will charge for your efforts, placing the assisted country in debt and also at an financial loss.

This research is of good importance, since flooding damages properties and also endangers humans and also all various other living things’ lives. This examine is justified due to the fact that floods are among the most regular natural catastrophes that cause greater financial losses and also difficulties to human activities. About 90% the the damages brought about by natural tragedies (excluding droughts) are caused by floods and associated water flows. The floods space responsible because that the death of practically twice the lot of people as tornadoes and hurricanes placed together. The water-related disasters account for 90% that all disasters in numbers of human being affected. Social and economic prices of floods have risen in current decades and the trend is to proceed to increase if an action is not taken. Through 2017, natural tragedies related to water caused worldwide losses the US$ 306 billion. Between 1980 and also 2016, 90% of natural catastrophes were climate-related. In 2016, 31% of worldwide losses were as result of storms, 32% attributed to flooding and 10% to too much temperatures. In addition, this examine is justified as there is the possibility that climate readjust may add to rise flooding result from increasing sea levels and heavy rains in details regions that the planet.

This manuscript is created by the following items:

Causes and after-effects of FloodsFlood control and flood managementFlood protection in Europe and also North AmericaData on floods in Asia and also in the WorldMeasures adopted for post-flood clean safetyBenefits indigenous floodsNetherlands suffer in flood prevention and also controlConfronting floods in the futureConclusions

Causes and after-effects of floods<1>

Flooding might be brought about by plenty of factors such as extreme rainfall, strong winds end water, unusual high tides, tsunamis or failure of dams, key of retention pond level or various other structures the contain water. Periodic flooding wake up in numerous rivers, developing a surrounding an ar known together an alluvial plain. Throughout periods of rain or snow, several of the water is maintained in ponds or soil, others are absorbed by grass and also vegetation, part evaporate and also the remainder travels over the land as surface runoff.

Flooding occurs when lakes, riverbeds, soil and also vegetation cannot absorb all the water. Water then escapes from land in quantities that can not be transported right into the networks of streams or retained in herbal ponds, lakes, and also man-made reservoirs. About 30% of all rainfall is in form of tiny runoff and that amount deserve to be increased by the water the the melted snow whereby it exists. River flooding is usually led to by hefty rains, sometimes boosted by eye melting. Rapid flooding, with little or no advance warning, is referred to as a suddenly flood. Suddenly floods usually result from heavy rains in a relatively small area, or if the area was currently saturated with previous precipitation.

Severe winds end water are an additional cause the flooding. Even when the rain is relatively light, the financial institutions of lakes and bays can be flooded as a result of solid winds together as throughout hurricanes the blow water to the seaside areas. One more cause is the unusual high tides the occur, periodically in coastal areas once they room flooded through unusually high tides, especially when created of strong winds and storms.

Flooding causes many impacts. They damage property and also endanger the lives of humans and also other life things. Rapid water runoff reasons soil erosion and also concomitant deposition of sediment at assorted locations, and also fish spawning sites and other wildlife habitats, i m sorry may become polluted or fully destroyed. Part high and prolonged floods deserve to compromise automobile traffic in locations that perform not have elevated roads. Flooding have the right to interfere v drainage and economic land use, and with agriculture. Structural damage can happen in leg pillars, sewer systems and also other frameworks in the area that floods. Water navigation and also hydroelectric strength are often hampered. Financial losses as result of floods are commonly of countless dollars each year.

According to UNESCO <8>, the an international average of economic losses brought about by floods and droughts is much more than US$ 40 billion a year in all economic sectors. Storms add, ~ above average, one more US$ 46 billion in yearly economic losses. The number of deaths, people influenced and financial losses varies significantly per year and per continent, v Africa and also Asia being the most influenced regions by these three indicators. Follow to several estimates, this numbers space expected to boost up to US$ 200-400 exchange rate by 2030. Such losses seriously influence water, food and also energy security, and consuming the mass of the full flow of advance assistance today.

The United countries Food and farming Organization (FAO) reports that, floods and also droughts have caused 83 every cent of accident in plantations and also herds between 2003 and also 2013 in 67 countries, evidencing the severe influence of climate-related catastrophes on the farming sector. The FAO pertained to this conclusion after examining 140 disasters in 67 nations during that period, affect at the very least 250,000 people. An approximated $ 80 exchange rate a year has been lost in these nations as a an outcome of decreased production, with damage being done to areas most dependency on agriculture, according to a report released on the eve of the Paris Climate Summit.

Global economic damages - consisting of other sectors besides farming and every sorts the natural disasters - was estimated at US$ 1.5 trillion. The yearly average of tragedies has doubled due to the fact that 1980. Latin America and also the Caribbean have actually lost US$ 11 billion in state of agricultural production, 55% of cases caused by floods and also to a lesser degree by droughts and also storms. Asia accounting for about 60 per cent the the complete estimated accident in occurring countries in that decade - US$ 48 exchange rate - mainly due to the impact of floods in nations such together India, the Philippines and also Pakistan. The FAO defined that in regards to production, 333 million loads of cereals, vegetables, meat, milk and also other products were lost due to natural disasters. To combat these phenomena, FAO dubbed for improvements in information systems top top the influence of calamities on farming and advances in adaptive capacity and mitigation of impacts with raised investment in the sector.

Russi <9> reports the water-related tragedies account because that 90% that all tragedies in numbers of world affected. Social and economic prices have increased in recent decades and, follow to speakers from the High Level dashboard on Water and Natural tragedies at the 8th civilization Water Forum, the trend will proceed to rise if an action is not taken. Through 2017, natural calamities related come water caused an international losses the $ 306 billion. In between 1980 and 2016, 90% of catastrophes are climate related. In 2016, of worldwide losses, 31% were due to storms, 32% attributed come flooding and also 10% to extreme temperatures.

According come Espere <10>, floods or suddenly floods are amongst the most regular natural calamities that cause greater economic losses and difficulties to human activity. Around 90% of the damage caused by every natural tragedies (droughts excluded) is brought about by floods and associated water operation (Figure 1). The floods are responsible for the death of virtually twice the number of people than are tornadoes and hurricanes put together


Figure 1: Weather Fatalities


An important affect resulting from the sudden flood is the landslide. A landslide is a geological and also climatologically phenomenon that contains a broad spectrum of soil movements, such together rock falls, landslide in depth and also surface streams the debris. The landslide is actually simply a classification of so-called mass movements, which entails the detachment and transport of floor or rocky product slope down. Three factors of influence can be thought about in the occurrence of landslides:

Soil type: the constitution, granulometry and cohesion levelDeclivity the the slope: who degree specifies the angle of repose, follow to the layers weight, granulometry and cohesion levelSoaking water: it contributes to increasing the details layers weight, reducing the level that cohesion and also friction, additionally responsible for soil consistency and also lubricating the slip surfaces

To prevent sliding, one of the actions is instead of the vegetation so the the water the descends ~ above the slopes the the hills loses rate or infiltrates the soil. The second, that is more secure, is structure terraces in kind of steps in stimulate to protect the soil from the activity of rainwater.

<1>This part of the manuscript has actually its content based on articles resource book for sustainable overwhelming mitigation techniques edited by Department because that International advancement (DFID)<1>, threat Assessment and also Control philosophies for Stormwater Flood and Pollution monitoring edited through Ellis, Scholes, Revitt and also Viavattene <2>, The Nation´s Responses to overwhelming Disasters: A historical Account edited through Hessler <3>, flood Risk management Federal role in facilities edited by Carter <4> , In Europe, High-Tech Flood control With Nature´s aid edited by broad <5>, Disaster and also Emergency Planning because that Preparedness, response and restore edited through Alexander <6>, and also Recovery and The design deficit in the solution of the floods difficulty in Brazil edited through Alcoforado<7>.

Flood control and flood management<2>

Flood control:

Flood control refers to all approaches used to reduce or prevent the damaging effects of overwhelming waters. Several of the typical techniques supplied for flood control are the surroundings of rock beams, rock rip-raps, sand bags, maintain of common slopes with vegetation or applications of floor cements ~ above steeper slopes and construction or expansion of drainage. Other methods encompass dykes, dams, retention basins or detention. Adhering to 2005-Hurricane Katrina disaster in the united States, some locations prefer no to have actually dykes as flood controls. Neighborhoods have liked to improve drainage frameworks with detention basins.

Some techniques of flood control have been practiced due to the fact that Antiquity. These methods include planting vegetation to maintain excess water, terrace slopes to reduce slope flow, and also building alluviums (man-made channels to divert water native flooding), building of dykes, dams, reservoirs or holding tanks to save extra water throughout flood periods.

In plenty of countries, flood-prone rivers are often carefully managed. Defenses such as dykes, reservoirs and dams are offered to keep rivers indigenous overflowing. A dam is among the methods of flood protection, which reduces the risk of flooding contrasted to other methods, once it can help preventing damage. However, the is ideal to incorporate dykes with other flood regulate methods to mitigate the risk of a fell down embankment. Once these defenses fail, emergency actions such together sandbags or portable blow up tubes room used. Coastal floods have been controlled in Europe and North America with defenses such as ocean walls or barrier islands that are narrow, long strips the sand commonly parallel come the coastline.

The design works that deserve to prevent and mitigate the results of floods space as follows: 1) top top highways, the implantation of steel pipes should take water by gravity away indigenous the roadway from catchment basins; 2) The severe flooding problems in a city the paved lot of that soil would be alleviated in component by the building of great swimming pools that are big underground water tanks to save the waters; 3) Mandatory location of permeable drainage floors in vast courtyards that parking too many in malls, supermarkets and cinemas, to allow the water infiltration in component of the ground, gift the exact same for monuments and spaces roughly buildings; 4) utilizing drains and also gutters about all dwellings to draw away rainwater come a reservoir or disposal area; 5) Maintenance, at any time possible, of some green areas so the the water is reabsorbed by the soil; 6) Rectification that rivers and also streams, building of dams and also canals in huge rivers that expand their containment basins; and 7) Implementation the a civil defense mechanism that should have the ability to at the very least warn people and also have a scheme to remove them from dwellings in time with some belongings and also accommodate them.

Caring to stop flooding in urban locations is, as follows: 1) keeping streets and sidewalks constantly clean; 2) cleaning and unclogging manhole and storm drain; 3) maintaining in the dwellings the channels and other channels of rainfall free of branches and also leaves of tree to avoid clogging and, consequently, return that water; 4) putting garbage bags top top the sidewalks only close to the time the garbage repertoire truck will come, avoiding them from being drawn into the manhole when it rains; 5) having a drainpipe pump top top hand if flooding can not be avoided; and also 6) utilizing Dutch and British overwhelming proof modern technology as a floating amphibian residence that enables buildings come float in the same way as a boat.

Hydrological experts recommend that, in order to stop flooding in city areas, the following measures should be adopted: 1) Combating erosion by minimizing sedimentation of herbal drainage and collected through rigorous and also extensive soil erosion control and irregular disposition of urban garbage and construction rubble , as well as the development of the flow gutters; 2) Combating waterproofing with the development of domestic and also business reservoirs, and also the expansion of environment-friendly areas; 3) Forbidding traffic on high traffic methods when nearby rivers overflow; 4) Implantation of opportunities covered by vegetation that, in situations of overflowing rivers or streams, water would certainly be absorbed by the pavement cost-free soil; 5) Constructing great swimming pools to obtain rainwater and mini swim pools in houses and also buildings; 6) Investing in little and huge streams of the urban facility to assistance the rise of water and act together containment barriers; 7) evaluation of occupied locations – consistent planning and land-use planning; and also 8) action and plan – preparation of a setup to address the occurrence of floods and also extreme climatic variations, and construction the reservoirs capable of save on computer billions of cubic meter of water and also their use for non-potable purposes.

Correction and prevention steps to minimize flood damage are classified follow to their nature into structural and non-structural measures. The structural actions correspond come the works that deserve to be implemented aiming in ~ the correction and also / or prevention of problems developing from floods. Non-structural measures are those that look for to avoid and/or reduce the damages and consequences of floods, no by method of work, yet by the development of norms, regulations and programs the aim at, for example, disciplining floor use and also occupation, implementing warning systems and the awareness of the population.

The structural measures comprise the engineering works, which can be defined as intensive and also extensive measures. Extensive measures, follow to your purpose, have the right to be of 4 types:

Acceleration the outflow: pipeline and related worksFlow retardation: reservoirs (detention / retention basins), reconstruction of organic guttersFlow deviation: tunnels the derivation and also channels the deviationIndividual actions come make structures flood proofOn the other hand, the considerable measures correspond to little storage in basin, vegetation cover restoration and also soil erosion regulate along the drainage basinStructural measures can develop a feeling of false security and even induce to the development of flood locations occupation. Non-structural actions can be effective at lower costs and longer horizons, and seek to self-control territorial occupation, people’s behavior and economic activities

Non-structural measures may be grouped as follows:

Actions to manage land use and occupationEnvironmental education and learning focused on the control of diffuse pollution, erosion and also wasteInsurance-floodFlood warning and forecasting systems

By delimiting subject-to-flooding areas depending top top the risk, the is possible to create a zoning and also the respective regulations for the construction, or for possible individual security works (such as the installation of floodgates, watertight doors and others) come be contained in currently buildings. In the very same way, some locations can it is in expropriated to be provided as squares, parks, parking lots and other uses.

In details cases where structural steps are technically or financially unviable (or also untimely), non-structural measures, such as warning systems, can reduce expected damages in a short-term, with little investments.

Inada <13> discusses concerns related come structural and non-structural flood avoidance measures. He reports the disaster management and flood defense were a significant theme in ~ the 2nd Asia-Pacific Water Summit in Chiang Mai. He claimed that there is a large gap between the groups who like "structural" remedies to catastrophe management and also those who choose "non-structural" solutions. Structure solutions incorporate engineered remedies such as redesigning buildings and designing physical obstacles to disaster occasions in bespeak to mitigate damage. Non-structural solutions incorporate social solutions such as early on warning, evacuation planning, and also emergency an answer preparedness.

Structural groups, which space often made up of engineers, firmly insist that just structural solutions have the right to surely prevent countries from economic loss and also contribute come the breakthrough of the nation. On the other hand, non-structural groups often warn, "Do no trust design solutions due to the fact that they sometime carry out not work. Early on warnings, quick evacuations and emergency an answer are straightforward investments."Which systems is more important? This question will cause endless discussions.

Inada <13> reports the the ax "resilience" has actually recently been introduced to disaster administration dialogue. The word implies that civilization should expropriate damages native a disaster and also have to plan in place for recovery. Together you know, warning, evacuation and also emergency an answer can aid save lives; however, it cannot defend properties and physical assets. For structural groups, non-structural options are no investments in ~ all. Investments should contribute for advancement and therefore reduce future expenditures. Structural solutions can safeguard people"s lives and also property.

It is a false dilemma come choose between structural and also non-structural actions to resolve flooding. We must opt because that the 2 measures. Non-structural steps should be taken in conjunction with structural measures and caution against the latter"s failure to carry out so.

Chakravartty <14> states that any combination of structural and non-structural additions, changes, or adjustments to structures which reduce or eliminate flood damage to real estate or enhanced real property, water and sanitary facilities, structures and their materials is referred to as flood-proofing. Flood-proofing requires that residence owners, builders, architects, engineers and also planners communicate in in-depth assessment of the feasibility of structure in high-risk flood-prone areas. Also, flood-proofing structural measures and plans to initiate standby or emergency steps in anticipation come the overwhelming preparation need to be adopted, such as sandbagging and moving furniture and also valuables to high floors, blocking openings or safely evacuating. Flood-proofing is not a cure for all flood problems; that is simply one the the many obtainable flood damages reduction tools.

Chakravartty <14> reports the the major objective of flood-proofing is to alleviate or prevent the results of coastal flooding top top structures. This may include structures elevating above the floodplain, employing designs and also building products which make structures more resilient to overwhelming damage and also preventing floodwaters from entering the overwhelming zone, amongst other measures. When floodwaters surround a building, lock impose uplift (vertical) and also lateral (horizontal) tons on the structure and also sub-structure. The pressure exerted by these lots must it is in pre-determined in order to architecture adequate flood-proofing.

Chakravartty <14> claims that many commercial and also industrial structures have enough anchorage and connections and also that they are massive enough to withstand to lateral forces created by floodwaters. In contrast, residential buildings often require special architecture modifications since they usually have actually neither the necessary anchorage nor the stamin to resist lateral forces. Uplift and lateral forces against a structure slab and walls led to by the infiltration of floodwaters v the structure backfill room especially far-ranging in structure design and also construction.

Chakravartty <14> points the end that the decision to usage flood-proofing techniques, alone or in combination with flood defense working as dykes needs a cost-benefit analysis. If you space seriously considering adapting any type of flood damage reduction methods, gain the solutions of a qualified experienced engineer to assist you select and design the right measure tailored to your details needs. This is particularly important if the residence or light-framed structure is or will be located in an area that is prone to fast-moving flood waters or if the cost affiliated is substantial.

Chakravartty <14> claims that flood-proofing actions will not necessarily eliminate the danger of the home being flooded. If anticipated benefits exceed the approximated cost, then flood-proofing will be economically justified. One of the main advantages of flood-proofing is the it stays clear of the must elevate, demolish or relocate frameworks and, as a result, it is often much an ext cost-effective strategy to reducing overwhelming risk. Flood-proofing steps are likewise much an ext affordable than the building of elaborate flood protection works such as seawalls and dike solution and also advantageous since it does not need the additional land that would certainly be forced to carry out the same degree of flood protection through seawalls or dikes.

Flood-proofing measures require the existing risk that flooding to be known and also communicated to the public through flood peril mapping studies and also flood warning systems. This will permit measures to be appropriately applied and also will permit time for residents to vacate flood-proofed structures in the occasion of an emergency. In situation of dried flood-proofing, it will certainly also enable residents to close barriers in a timely fashion. Return the supplication of flood hazard maps and also flood warnings bring benefits themselves, the is second cost that should be borne as soon as implementing flood-proofing measures.

Flood management:

In bespeak to resolve flood risks, it is vital that prevention and precaution procedures are adopted to protect against catastrophic events. The Preliminary Environmental influence Assessment the Floods is an important instrument for the formulation of civil defense plans as it is offered to assess, predict and prevent further economic and social loss resulting native floods. It have to be noted that preventive or precautionary measures should be based upon risk administration policies and, over all, be existing in the proposals and actions the the polite Defense in handling the floods.

Prevention and precaution room two prudence elements that are placed in front of instances when there is the opportunity of damage. These values should guide any kind of flood defense policy. The distinction between potential and proven risks underpins the parallel distinction between precaution and prevention. Precaution is around potential risks and also prevention about proven risks. The potential risk corresponds to a dangerous occasion that might or may not happen to which no probability deserve to be attributed, when proven dangers can be attributed to events with probabilities the occurrence.

The prevention principle is applicable to impacts caused by known floods and from which the is feasible to create a set of causal web links that is enough to recognize the most most likely future impacts; the is, when there is currently an information background about them. The rule of avoidance is intended, in a narrow sense, to protect against immediate, imminent and concrete dangers, follow to an immediate logic, as a search, in a vast sense, come remove any future risks, also if not yet completely determinable, according to a logic prospective that anticipation the future events. In instance of certainty the the economic and social damage caused through floods, this need to be prevented, as recommended by the rule of prevention.

In case of doubt or uncertainty about floods caused, for example, by an international climate change, action must be tackled the basis of the preventative principle. Floods might have an uncertain occurrence and their results would reach various dimensions, which would certainly require particular actions come avoid feasible damages with connected risks the should bring about adopting an action that offers the the very least risk that economic and social damage. The decision to take precautionary procedures to resolve the results of an international climate adjust and to stop its catastrophic results of worldwide warming is correct.

Attention must, therefore, be attracted to the distinction between the hazard of a future nature, on which the precautionary principle is based, and also danger that an immediate nature, connected to the reasonable of prevention. Prevention means the plot of anticipating and precaution, in turn, way to beforehand admission the care. The financial calculation need to serve together a basis because that decisions related to prevention and also precaution. In deciding ~ above the economic options to it is in adopted, one variable that substantially complicates the systems of a difficulty is uncertainty. One more complicating element is insufficient information.

Uncertainty have the right to be minimized and insufficient information can be remedied through the constitution of what is called large Data. In information technology, the term large Data refers to a huge set of save on computer data. The is said that large Data is based upon 5 factors: velocity, volume, variety, veracity and also value. It’s important to take it the right information, come the ideal people, at the ideal time to do decisions. This needs asking the right inquiries and examining the data intended to recognize the flood dynamics. Large Data allows the analysis of a substantial amount of details to display patterns and correlations, in many instances totally unknown. Large Data opens up a broader range that possibilities that deserve to turn right into paths to innovation.

It should be listed that decision-making is a procedure of evaluation and choice of several alternatives available, the the course of activity to be followed. The decision-making procedure consists of 6 steps: 1) perception of the situation; 2) evaluation and an interpretation of the problem; 3) definition of objectives; 4) find for solution alternatives; 5) Evaluation and comparison of this alternatives; 6) an option of the many appropriate different (Simon, 2010).

In deciding around the most appropriate alternative, the decision ascendancy used in Decision Theory can be adopted: Maximin, Minimax, Maximax and also Minimin.The Maximin standard is based upon a downhearted view of the problem. Maximin aims to maximize the minimum gain. The alternate to be favored will be the one the is the best among the worst alternatives of all choices considered. Economically, one should determine the minimum economic advantage for each alternative and then pick the alternate with the greatest minimum benefit. In the situation of floods, the minimum economic advantage would exchange mail to the smallest difference between the economic loss the would an outcome from them if nothing to be done and also the expense to avoid them. The Minimax criterion is a decision ascendancy to minimize the possible loss for a worst-case scenario, that is, to select the shortest of the feasible maximum costs. In the case of floods, would be favored the different of young maximum expense to prevent flooding.

It´s feasible also adopt the Maximax and Minimin criteria. The Maximax standard is based upon an positive view that the problem. The alternative to be preferred would be the one the is the best among the best choices of all possible alternatives. Applied to the economic scope, one must identify the maximum economic advantage for each alternative and then choose the alternate with the highest maximum benefit. In the situation of floods, the preferably economic benefit would exchange mail to the better difference between the financial loss that would result from castle if nothing was done and the cost to avoid them. The Minimin default is fully opposite to the Maximax criterion: in this one, the decision-makers reasoning is pessimistic. In this case, he would study the worst feasible outcome and then choose the alternative that would minimize their losses. In the case of floods, the lowest cost different would be favored to protect against flooding. Finally, one deserve to use the criterion of Hurwicz <15>, intermediate in between the most downhearted (Maximin) and also the many optimistic (Maximax).

<2>This part of the manuscript has actually its content based upon articles source book for sustainable flood mitigation techniques edited by Department because that International advancement (DFID)<1>, threat Assessment and also Control ideologies for Stormwater Flood and also Pollution management edited by Ellis, Scholes, Revitt and also Viavattene <2>, The Nation´s Responses to flood Disasters: A historic Account edited by Hessler <3>, overwhelming Risk management Federal role in infrastructure edited through Carter <4>, In Europe, High-Tech Flood regulate With Nature´s assist edited by large <5>, Disaster and also Emergency Planning for Preparedness, response and recovery edited by Alexander <6>,The design deficit in the systems of the floods trouble in Brazil edited by Alcoforado <7>, O tempo das catástrofes(The Time that the Disasters) edited byDupuy <11>, Processo Decisório (The Decisional Process) edited by Simon <12>, structure vs. Non-Structural ideologies to catastrophe Management: Which would you choose? edited by Inada <13> and Flood proofing edited by Chakravartty <14>.

Flood defense in Europe and also North America<3>

London is safeguarded from flooding by an enormous mechanical obstacle on the flow Thames, i beg your pardon is lifted as soon as the water level reaches a certain level. Venice has a similar arrangement, although the is already unable to manage the very high tides. The defenses that London and also Venice will be thought about inadequate if the level that the sea continues to rise. The largest and also most fancy flood defenses can be discovered in The Netherlands, wherein they are described as Delta Works v the Oosterschelde dam together their best achievement. These functions were developed in solution to the 1953 north Sea flood in the southwesternpart of The Netherlands. The netherlands had currently built among the biggest dams in the world in the north of the country: the Afsluitdijk (closed in 1932). The St. Petersburg Flood prevention Facilities complicated was built in Russia to safeguard St Petersburg from storms. It additionally has a main traffic function as the completes a one road around St. Petersburg. Eleven dams big 25.4 kilometers and also they are eight meters over water level.

Another fancy system of overwhelming defenses have the right to be found in the district of Manitoba, in Canada. The Red river flows to north from the united States, through the city of Winnipeg (where it meets the Assiniboine River) in the direction of Lake Winnipeg. As is the situation with all rivers to run north in the pleasant zone of the northern Hemisphere, thawing in the southern sections can cause river levels to rise before the northern sections have actually a opportunity to thaw completely. This deserve to lead to terrible floods, as emerged in Winnipeg throughout the spring of 1950. To defend the city from future floods, the Manitoba government undertook the building of a huge levee system. The mechanism kept Winnipeg safe during the 1997 flood which ravaged many communities north that Winnipeg, consisting of Grand Forks, north Dakota and also Ste. Agathe, Manitoba.

In the joined States, the brand-new Orleans metropolitan Area (35% of which is below sea level) is safeguarded by numerous miles that levees and also floodgates. This mechanism failed catastrophically with plenty of breaks during Hurricane Katrina, in the city proper and also in the east sections of the city area, resulting in the flooding of about 50% that the city area, ranging from a few centimeters to 20ft (twenty feet) in seaside communities. In a flood prevention act, the United claims government offered to buy flood-prone properties in stimulate to protect against repeated post-flood tragedies in 1993 throughout the Midwest. Several communities accepted this proposal and also the government, in partnership through the state, to buy 25,000 nature which were converted right into wetlands. This wetlands act prefer a sponge in storms, and in 1995, once the floods returned, the government did not have to allocate resources in those areas.

<3>This part of the manuscript has its content based on articles source book for sustainable flood mitigation techniques edited by Department for International breakthrough <1>, danger Assessment and Control approaches for Stormwater Flood and Pollution management edited by Ellis, Scholes, Revitt and Viavattene <2>, The Nation´s Responses to flood Disasters: A historic Account edited by Hessler <3>, flood Risk management Federal role in infrastructure edited through Carter <4>, In Europe, High-Tech Flood manage With Nature´s aid edited by large <5>, Disaster and Emergency Planning because that Preparedness, response and restore edited by Alexander <6> andThe engineering deficit in the equipment of the floods difficulty in Brazil edited by Alcoforado <7>,

Data on floods in Asia and also in the World<4>

Victor <16> states that floods are the most typical natural catastrophes in both developed and developing nations, accountancy for nearly 40 percent of herbal disasters. The south east Asian an ar is specifically prone to floods, which, follow to the United countries Office for the Coordination the Humanitarian Affairs, that is approximated that 9.6 million human being are currently impacted by the floods, with 5.3 million in Thailand alone and that these floods are led to by heavy monsoon showers, typhoons and storms, together a an outcome of climate change.

Victor <16> reports the Southeast Asia is particularly susceptible come the effects of climate change due to its rapid growing population - the majority of which are still living in poverty - and also poor food security and also diminishing natural resources, that climate readjust is a an outcome of enhancing temperatures i beg your pardon is attached to more intense downpours, warm waves, too much weather events, higher climate variability and also rising sea levels, every one of which add to the increased frequency and also intensity of flooding in south east Asia. In Malaysia, over fifty percent of the historical state of Penang was submerged in overwhelming waters after hrs of torrential rain. Other nations in the region have additionally been make headlines once it involves floods particularly, Philippines and also Thailand.

Victor <16> claims that capacity building in priority involves such as person resources have to be strengthened. Ar preparedness is another example the an intervention that deserve to be enhanced in south-east Asia. Both governmental and non-governmental to work are often unsustainable, because of lack the funding and community engagement. There is a strong need for governmental organizations to continue occurring flood to plan strategies past mitigation and adaptation.

Khinmaung-Moore <17> claims that hefty monsoon rains are continuing to cause severe flooding throughout Bangladesh, Nepal and also India, that existing floods room the worst in decades and are happening during the monsoon. Khinmaung-Moore <17> reported the he can"t say if this specific flooding is directly caused through climate change. However, over there is a clean relationship in between climate change and severe, erratic weather patterns prefer the ones he is seeing. There have been 4 floods in Bangladesh in 2017which to be bigger and more intense than in previous decades. Poverty method that negative people’s are much more vulnerable as soon as flooding hits and also disaster strikes - specifically as countless are nearly wholly reliant ~ above the land for your livelihoods. Poor reduces their choices and pressures them to live in and also grow food in riskier areas. Below-standard drainage, some deforestation and also poor infrastructure planning are additionally compounding the situation. Khinmaung-Moore states that the climate is transforming fast and also people life in poverty, who room the least responsible for it, are frequently the most vulnerable to their impacts, consisting of disasters and also flooding. Countless lives and livelihoods are at risk.

STATISTA <18> reports the The facility for research on the epidemiology of catastrophes released data top top the economic damage caused by far-reaching floods worldwide. Approximately this date, the overwhelming of respectable 5, 2011 in Thailand to be the most financially damaging flood in between 1900 and 2013, causing roughly 40 billion U.S. Dollars of damage. Thailand"s floods of august 2011 reportedly eliminated 42 people and also occurred in the North and North-Eastern areas of the country. Heavy storm and also tropical storm Nock Ten to be to blame for the flooding. Nock Ten eliminated 75 human being in Philippines. It additionally made landfall in China, Vietnam and also Laos, where much more damage to be done and much more people died. An approximated 1.5 million civilization were influenced in Thailand. Due to flooding, roughly 650,000 individuals were evacuated native low-lying locations in Thailand and also 6,200 acre of rice and other crop fields were submerged by flow water.

STATISTA <18> reports about China, which had actually a total populace of 1.4 billion individuals as of 2013,that that is a nation heavily affected by flood damage and additionally has high location in floods. In one historic occasion in 1931, end 3.7 million civilization died because of flooding in China. In 1991, in China, end 210 million world were impacted by significant flooding. In 1998, end 238 million civilization were influenced by significant flood tragedies in China. A flood in China in 1998 caused damages estimated come be worth 30 exchange rate U.S. Dollars. In China, deviation areas are rural areas deliberately submarine in emergencies to defend cities. V natural woodland cover, the expression of floods should decrease. Deforestation amplifies the incidents and also severity that floods.

(Figure 2) presents data about economic damage in Thailand, China, India, Germany and also United States led to by far-reaching floods global from 1900 come 2016 (in exchange rate U.S. Dollars).

Figure 2: Economic damages caused by significant floods an international from 1900 come 2016 (in exchange rate U.S. Dollars).


WORLD ATLAS <19> presents the most expensive floods in the world. Thailand, China and also India have all been hit by devastating floods during torrential monsoon rain in recent history. In this article, people Atlas demonstrates the incredible damage that floods can inflict. In between 1900 and also 2015, disastrous floods have seriously influenced local economies about the world. Several of the most destructive of this floods developed in the southerly and central regions the Asia – especially in the populous countries China, Thailand, Korea and India. Statistically speaking, just two nations outside of Asia have suffered consequences from huge floods which space severe enough in nature to make it ~ above the perform of the 10 many economically terrible floods ever recorded.

The financial damage data, provided by The center for research study on the public health of Disasters, put the German floods from might 28, 2013 at the sixth place in (Table 1), as result of the truth that inflicted $12.9 billion USD in damages to the economic climate to the country. A similar flooding occasion had taken place in Germany in 2002, through that deluge bring about a full loss of $11.6 exchange rate USD. The other non-Asian nation to do our list, experiencing damages native two separate floods as well, is the joined States. After a significant U.S. Flood in 1993, the funds needed to repair all property and also return the an ar back to regular made a full of $12 exchange rate USD. An additional U.S. Overwhelming in 2008 led to damages precious $10 billion USD.



Economic damage (in exchange rate U.S. Dollars)


Thailand, (Aug 5, 2011)



China, (July 1, 1998)



China, (May 29, 2010)



India, (September, 2014)



Korea Dem ns Rep, (August 1, 1995)



Germany, (May 28, 2013)



China, (June 30, 1996)



U.S., (June 24, 1993)



Germany, (August 11, 2002)



U.S., (June 9, 2008)


Table 1: The many expensive floods in the world.

Source:World Atlas(

<4>This component of the manuscript has its contents based on articles Flood controlin south east Asia edited by Victor <16>, The floods in Asia – What’s happening and why, edited by Khinmaung-Moore <17>, Economic damage caused by far-reaching floods an international from 1900 to 2016* (in billion U.S. Dollars) edited through STATISTA <18> and The many Expensive Floods In The human being edited by civilization ATLAS <19>.

Measures adopted for post-flood cleaning safety<5>

Clean-up tasks after floods regularly pose risks to the workers and also volunteers involved in such effort. Potential perils include electric hazards, carbon monoxide exposure, musculoskeletal hazards, heat or cold, hazards related to engine vehicles, fire, drowning, and also exposure to hazardous materials. Together flooded catastrophe sites are unstable, cleaners may encounter spicy fragments, organic hazards in the water, exposed electrical lines, blood or various other body fluids, and animal and also human remains. When planning and also responding to flood disasters, supervisors should provide workers with safety and security helmets, goggles, heavy duty gloves, lifejackets, and waterproof boots to toes and also with stole insoles. After the flood waters recede and the cleanup has actually been done, most folks want to get earlier into their homes or businesses and start rebuilding. ~ the floods, the Canadian room of publicly Safety and Emergency Preparedness <20> considers essential to restore homes to an excellent order as shortly as possible to defend health and also prevent further damages to the house and also its contents. The Canadian department of publicly Safety and Emergency Preparedness has established measures to be taken after ~ floods pertained to the topics which space as follows: 1) Re-entering her home; 2) Ensure building safety; 3) Water contaminated; 4) Documentation; 5) Cleanup; 6) Recommended flood cleanup equipment; 7) added equipment; 8) Water withdrawal; 9) Heating and also appliances; 10) Dirt and debris; 11) Floor drains; 12) Structures; 13) Carpets and also furniture; 14) Mould; 15) Food and also medicine; 16) What come discard; 17) What is salvageable; and, 18) prior to moving back in. Conservation Assistance division from U.S. National Park company <21> notifies that after ~ the flood waters begin to recede, the focus of relief initiatives becomes returning points to normal. Throughout this phase, many historic structures and also properties room needlessly lost and damaged through hasty clean-up procedures. The best means to help a historical district, property, or structure prevent added damage and maintain that integrity and also character throughout these time of duress is with the usage of proper caution and concern. Conservation Assistance division recommends that while the water is receding, one should setup the future measures to rehabilitation and also restoration carefully. Every decision made this particular day affects future decisions, i beg your pardon will must be made tomorrow. The following areas of problem should be addressed throughout planning: 1) personal Safety- The very first Priority; 2) Documentation- occurring a condition Assessment Report; 3) structure Stabilization- momentary Measures; 4) dry Out- herbal Ventilation and also Time; and, 5) Housekeeping Maintenance- early Cleaning and also Repair.

An excellent example of procedures to be taken ~ floods is the one presented by Jolie Kerr in her post "How come Clean up Safely after a Hurricane or Flood". In this article, the writer informs the “If you"ve been hit by either of these - or any kind of other storm - cleaning up deserve to be a nightmare, and couple of resources call you where to start”.Kerr <22> reports that "Storm cleanup is different from regular and also even heavy duty cleaning. There space hazards, health and wellness concerns and other worries that go past normal clean that need specialty products, tools and cleaning techniques, and also protective gear and safety procedures not forced in continual cleaning. After ~ a huge storm and flooding, many holdings will be full, but often there room unexpected prizes that make it through that can be restored. Below are indict to follow what deserve to be salvaged.” The indict of Kerr space presented in the paragraphs below.

After a flood, removing water and drying everything out have the right to be daunting. In addition to energy pumps for water removal, wet/dry vacuums like theShop Vac, and carpet and also upholstery cleaners like the ones made byRug DoctorandBissell, have the right to be provided without cleaning services to extract water indigenous both difficult surfaces, like concrete and subflooring, and also soft surfaces, favor carpet and also upholstery. Because that spot cleaning, a good wet mop, choose these suggested by cable cutter, a brand-new York time company, will split the difference. If you’re willing to invest in a wet/dry vacuum, cable cutter has a ide for girlfriend too. Safety is a problem when handling any type of electric devices in a flooded area, and also you need to avoid using makers like the Rug medical professional if over there is more than a half inch of was standing water. Do not get in a flooded an are unless you space sure the electricity is rotate off.

After was standing water has actually drained or been removed, dampness will persist, and along with that moisture will come mold, mildew and also smells. Dehumidifiers, when the water is gone, can help keep the air at a comfortable humidity until you deserve to make enlarge repairs. Portable air-conditioning units (but no outdoor or ground-mounted main air units, which deserve to be contaminated through silt) can also aid reduce humidity and also moisture levels in your home. If a dehumidifier or air-conditioner provides the feature, use the ‘extra dry’ setting. Both the these options are great while you get lingering moisture out of walls or flooring, or to end up dehumidifying your house once you’ve make those repairs. Carpet and upholstery cleaners have the right to be used with a pre-mixed odor-eliminating equipment or diluted white vinegar (if permitted by manufacturer instructions) to eliminate those damp, mildewy smells from your floors.

A bleach solution and scrub brush have the right to be used to eliminate mold from difficult surfaces. When cleaning mold, it is important to wear security gloves and also mask, an especially if you endure from respiratory issues or have a weakened immune system. Come treat center dampness and mustiness, desiccants and odor absorbers such as Damp rid, silica, the poor Air Spongeand activated charcoal-based assets are all an excellent choices. It’s also worth maintaining in psychic that also with all these tips, you still might want to acquire a expert mold test because that your house — also the ideal efforts of people may not be enough, and you can need expert help. After Katrina, for example, part peopleneeded high-quality antimicrobial spraying equipmentfor their totality home. Carry out your ideal to clean up, then keep an eye, ear and nose out for clues on walls, smells, or uncertain coughs.

Heavily soiled laundry needs special handling, and this is specifically true in the situation of hefty soiling caused by floodwater. Before doing any type of wash, ensure the the water supply is clean and uncontaminated, and that your laundry equipments are safe to use. If they room not, head to your closest laundromat or dried cleaners. If access to Laundromats or dry cleaners is an issue, check to check out if corporate disaster relief services, together asTide´s lots of Hopeprogram, or volunteer laundering services, choose Ladies that Launder (and guys Too…), are easily accessible in your area.

Start by acquisition the greatly soiled laundry outside to wash wet or muddy item off utilizing a hose, or ar them into a energy sink for pre-rinsing if outdoor an are is no available. Permit the items to dry, ideally in the sun, to aid prevent mildew from developing, then shake out and brush off any dirt and mud that continues to be after the early rinse. To ensure safe managing of contaminated textiles, stay gloves, and also consider the use of goggles and/or a mask or a respirator. The C.D.C. Recommends disposing of items that have been exposed to sewer spills and groundwater runoff, and things like pillows, plush toys, or garments that has remained in floodwater for an extended duration of time.

When laundering heavily soiled textiles, it’s important to inspect the water during the rinse cycle to make certain the items space clean. Multiple to wash cycles might be necessary to fully remove soil and also other contaminants. Because that disinfecting apparel or other laundry, usage the sexy water setup that is safe for the fabric type. Listed they room safe come be supplied in laundry every the manufacturer’s instructions, add pine oil disinfectants together asPine-Solor lest oil, or phenolic disinfectants choose Lysol, or chlorine bleach, in ~ the start of the to wash cycle. Once your items are thoroughly cleaned, they may enter a dryer — but not before, as the heat will collection stains right into soiled textiles.

For your safety once working in wet conditions, stay rubber or insulated footwear, and also again, carry out not go into a flooded an are unless you space sure the electrical power is turned off. If your home has natural gas service, check for gas leaks prior to using electrical equipment in her home, including lights. If you have actually a gas grill, have your canisters checked by a professional before you try using castle again. The environmental Protection Agencyrecommends put on gloves and also other protective devices in post-flood conditions, including respirators and goggles. Similarly,the U.S. Consumer Product safety Commission has a safety guideto follow before you walk into a flood-damaged home. If you desire to brave return to her home before the water has fully receded, execute so just with the appropriate equipment.

Snakes and also other wildlife will additionally be a concern, so use caution once working in flooded areas. The American Red Crossrecommends employing a wood stick to revolve over upended items that can harbor critters, as well as for scaring away snakes and also for moving potentially-live electric wires. Additionally, floodwater and mud will certainly make flooring slick, developing slip-and-fall hazards. Once it concerns insurance claims, that is best to have photographs or video of both the interior and exterior that homes, automobiles, boats, etc. Prior to the damage developed to display their previous condition. Regardless of even if it is pre-storm photos and also videos space available, photos and videos documenting the damages should it is in taken prior to cleanup initiatives begin.

See more: Circle Thing That Goes On The Back Of Your Phone S And Tablets

<5>This part of the manuscript has its content based upon articles source book because that sustainable overwhelming mitigation strategies edited through Department because that International advancement <1>, threat Assessment and also Control approaches for Stormwater Flood and Pollution administration edited through Ellis, Scholes, Revitt and also Viavattene <2>, The Nation´s Responses to overwhelming Disasters: A historical Account edited by Hessler <3>, flood Risk monitoring Federal function in infrastructure edited through Carter <4>, In Europe, High-Tech Flood manage With Nature´s aid edited by vast <5>, Disaster and also Emergency Planning for Preparedness, an answer and recovery edited by Alexander <6>, The design deficit in the systems of the floods difficulty in Brazil edited through Alcoforado <7>, ~ a flood edited by Canadian room of public Safety and also Emergency Preparedness <20>, after the Flood: Emergency Stabilization and also Conservation steps edited by Preservation aid Division, U.S. Nationwide Park service <21> and also How come Clean increase Safely after ~ a Hurricane or overwhelming edited by Jolie Kerr <22>.