The knee is a complicated structure and also one the the many stressed joints in the body. It is the biggest joint, an essential for movement, and vulnerable come injury.

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The knee is the most frequently injured share by adolescent athletes with an estimated 2.5 million sports-related injuries annually.

anatomy

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Share top top PinterestThe knee is the most facility joint in the person body.
The knee is a hinge joint that is responsible for weight-bearing and movement. It consists of bones, meniscus, ligaments, and tendons.

The knee is designed to meet a variety of functions:

support the human body in one upright position without the need for muscles to workhelps to lower and also raise the bodyprovides stabilityacts as a shock absorberallows twisting of the legmakes walking much more efficienthelps propel the body forward

Below, us will define the simple components of knee anatomy.

Bones

The femur (thigh bone), tibia (shin bone), and also patella (kneecap) make up the skeletal of the knee. The knee joint keeps this bones in place.

The patella is a small, triangle shame bone the sits in ~ the former of the knee, within the quadriceps muscle. That is lined v the thickest great of cartilage in the body because it endures a great deal of force.

Cartilage

There space two varieties of cartilage in the knee:

Meniscus: these space crescent-shaped discs that act together a cushion, or “shock absorber” so that the bones of the knee can move with their range of motion without rubbing directly versus each other. The menisci also contain nerves that help improve balance and also stability and ensure the correct load distribution between the femur and tibia.

The knee has two menisci:

medial – ~ above the inner next of the knee, this is largest of the twolateral – ~ above the outer side of the knee

Articular cartilage: found on the femur, the top of the tibia, and the earlier of the patella; the is a thin, shiny great of cartilage. The acts together a shock absorber and also helps bones relocate smoothly end one another.

Ligaments

Ligaments space tough and also fibrous tissues; they plot like solid ropes to connect bones to various other bones, staying clear of too much motion and promoting stability. The knee has four:

ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) – avoids the femur from sliding backward on the tibia, and also the tibia from slide forward on the femur.PCL (posterior cruciate ligament) – prevents the femur from slide forward on the tibia, or the tibia from sliding backward on the femur.MCL (medial collateral ligament) – stays clear of side to side motion of the femur.LCL (lateral collateral ligament) – prevents side to side movement of the femur.

Tendons

These difficult bands the soft tissue carry out stability to the joint. Lock are similar to ligaments, yet instead of linking bone to bone, they connect bone come muscle. The biggest tendon in the knee is the patellar tendon, i m sorry covers the kneecap, runs up the thigh, and attaches to the quadriceps.

Muscles

Although they room not technically part of the knee joint, the hamstrings and also quadriceps space the muscles the strengthen the foot and assist flex the knee.

The quadriceps are four muscles that straighten the knee. The hamstrings are three muscles at the back of the thigh the bend the knee.

The gluteal muscles – gluteus medius and minimus – likewise known as the glutes room in the buttocks; this are additionally important in placing the knee.

Joint capsule

The joint capsule is a membrane bag that surrounds the knee joint. That is filled through a liquid dubbed synovial fluid, i beg your pardon lubricates and nourishes the joint.

Bursa

There are roughly 14 that these little fluid-filled bag within the knee joint. They minimize friction between the tissues of the knee and also prevent inflammation.


Sprains and strains are injuries come the ligaments. The ACL and also MCL are the ligaments most often injured.

These injuries usually take place in sports such together soccer, football, and basketball whereby the knee can experience a suddenly twisting motion, a rapid adjust in direction, or an untrue landing from a jump.

Often a pop or snap is heard complied with by swelling. Symptoms additionally include tenderness along the joint line and pain with walking.

Meniscus tear

A meniscal tear generally happens throughout sports where the knee twists, pivots, or an separation, personal, instance is tackled.

Even common wear native aging can weaken the meniscus, leading to it come tear v a straightforward awkward turn during normal day come day activities. Symptom of a tear room usually pain, stiffness, swelling, locking, and decreased selection of motion.

Fracture

A fracture is most regularly caused by trauma, such together falls, motor auto accidents, and also sports-related contact. The most typical bone broken around the knee is the patella (kneecap).

Overuse

The most usual overuse injury is “runner’s knee,” a loosened term that describes several disorders, including patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). These painful conditions are common among athletes such together runners and cyclists.

Pain is experienced behind or about the kneecap and also can travel to the thigh or shin. The pain aggravates with activity and is relieved by rest.


All knee injuries must be evaluate by a doctor as shortly as possible. Straightforward treatment for usual knee injuries consists of rest, ice, elevation, and also an over-the-counter pain reliever such together Ibuprofen.

It is additionally important to begin strengthening and also stretching practice 24-48 hrs after minor injuries, or together advised by a doctor. There must be a steady return to typical activities. In part cases, such as an ACL tear, arthroscopic surgical treatment is vital to repair the damage.

Additionally, short-lived rest and avoiding placing weight top top the leg might be important for ideal healing. Crutches might be recommended for a limited time to prevent additional injury.

Physical therapy is frequently indicated to aid a person’s recovery come a pain-free variety of motion. Vital extension of therapy involves proceeding a house exercise program. Without adequate rehabilitation, a human will tend to have actually on going difficulties with an injured knee. The goal of therapy is to regain stability, strength, and mobility.


The adhering to tips may aid prevent typical knee injuries:

Warm up by walking and stretching tenderness before and after playing sports.Keep the foot muscles strong by making use of stairs, speak a stationary bicycle, or working out v weights.Avoid sudden transforms in the soot of exercise.Replace worn the end shoes. Select ones that fit properly and also provide great traction.Maintain a healthy and balanced weight come avoid added pressure on the knees.Always stay a seatbelt.Use knee guards in sports where knees could get injured.

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Maintaining strong, versatile leg muscles and also seeking prompt medical attention for all knee injuries is crucial to assure precise diagnosis and also appropriate treatment of the injury. Additionally, keeping the supporting leg muscles solid and practicing injury avoidance will help keep the knee healthy throughout the lifespan.